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Solution-Processed Hydrogen Molybdenum Bronzes as Highly Conductive Anode Interlayers in Efficient Organic Photovoltaics

Authors

  • Anastasia Soultati,

    1. Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems (IAMPPNM), National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece
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  • Antonios M. Douvas,

    1. Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems (IAMPPNM), National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece
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  • Dimitra G. Georgiadou,

    1. Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems (IAMPPNM), National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece
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  • Leonidas C. Palilis,

    1. Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patras, Greece
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  • Thomas Bein,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanoscience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany
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  • Johann M. Feckl,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanoscience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany
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  • Spyros Gardelis,

    1. Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems (IAMPPNM), National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece
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  • Mihalis Fakis,

    1. Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patras, Greece
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  • Stella Kennou,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Patras, Greece
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  • Polycarpos Falaras,

    1. Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems (IAMPPNM), National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece
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  • Thomas Stergiopoulos,

    1. Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems (IAMPPNM), National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece
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  • Nikolaos A. Stathopoulos,

    1. Department of Electronics, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Piraeus, Aegaleo, Greece
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  • Dimitris Davazoglou,

    1. Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems (IAMPPNM), National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece
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  • Panagiotis Argitis,

    1. Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems (IAMPPNM), National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece
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  • Maria Vasilopoulou

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology and Microsystems (IAMPPNM), National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece
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Abstract

Highly efficient and stable organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells are demonstrated by incorporating solution-processed hydrogen molybdenum bronzes as anode interlayers. The bronzes are synthesized using a sol-gel method with the critical step being the partial oxide reduction/hydrogenation using an alcohol-based solvent. Their composition, stoichiometry, and electronic properties strongly correlate with the annealing process to which the films are subjected after spin coating. Hydrogen molybdenum bronzes with moderate degree of reduction are found to be highly advantageous when used as anode interlayers in OPVs, as they maintain a high work function similar to the fully stoichiometric metal oxide, whereas they exhibit a high density of occupied gap states, which are beneficial for charge transport. Enhanced short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage and, fill factor, relative to reference devices incorporating either PEDOT-PSS or a solution processed stoichiometric molybdenum oxide, are obtained for a variety of bulk heterojunction mixtures based on different polymeric donors and fullerene acceptors. In particular, high power conversion efficiencies are obtained in devices that employed the s-HxMoO2.75 as the hole extraction layer.

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