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Keywords:

  • Cu2ZnSnSxSe4-x;
  • earth-abundant elements;
  • kesterites;
  • photovoltaic devices;
  • solution processing
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

A 12.6% Cu2ZnSnSxSe4–x (CZTSSe) solar cell is presented with detailed device characteristics. Both short-circuit current density (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) increase in the 12.6% champion, relative to previous devices, due to better bulk CZTSSe quality and improved optical architecture. The reduction in Voc deficit shows opportunities to push CZTSSe solar cells to higher efficiency.