Probing Charge Recombination Dynamics in Organic Photovoltaic Devices under Open-Circuit Conditions



Large perturbation transient photovoltage and impedance spectroscopy measurements are used to gain insights into recombination in organic photovoltaic devices. The combination of these two simple optoelectronic techniques enables characterization of recombination order as well as mobile and trapped charge evolution over a large range of carrier densities. The data show that trapped charge is approximately equal to total charge at low carrier densities in the high efficiency devices measured. Between low and high charge carrier density, the order of recombination is observed to vary from monomolecular to bimolecular to higher order. The new techniques and methods presented can be applied to any type of photovoltage device to gain insight into device operation and limitations.