Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 1 Issue 2

March 18, 2011

Volume 1, Issue 2

Pages 137–302

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Organic Solar Cells: Polythiophene: Perylene Diimide Solar Cells – the Impact of Alkyl-Substitution on the Photovoltaic Performance (Adv. Energy Mater. 2/2011) (page 137)

      Valentin Kamm, Glauco Battagliarin, Ian A. Howard, Wojciech Pisula, Alexey Mavrinskiy, Chen Li, Klaus Müllen and Frédéric Laquai

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190005

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      Better photon harvesting in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is of critical importance in increasing power conversion efficiency. However, despite significant efforts, the efficiencies of polymer:perylene diimide heterojunctions are still moderate. In work reported on p. 297, Chen Li, Frédéric Laquai, and co-workers study the impact of the PDI molecular structure on its solid-state morphology and photophysics, which govern the device performance, and present a novel core-alkylated PDI derivative that shows unprece-dented power conversion efficiencies in P3HT:PDI devices.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Microstructure of Nanoscaled La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ Cathodes for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Adv. Energy Mater. 2/2011) (page 138)

      Levin Dieterle, Pascal Bockstaller, Dagmar Gerthsen, Jan Hayd, Ellen Ivers-Tiffée and Uwe Guntow

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190006

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      Optimization of the microstructure is a common approach to counteract increased loss from electro-chemically active cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells in the low- and intermediate-temperature regime. On p. 249, Levin Dieterle and co-workers analyze the 3D microstructure and chemical composition of porous and nanocrystalline La0.6Sr0.4CoO3–δ thin-film cathodes on Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 electrolytes, providing a more complete understanding of the contribution of the microstructure to the electro-chemical performance of intermediate-tempera-ture solid oxide fuel cells.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
  4. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Correction: Interdiffusion of PCBM and P3HT Reveals Miscibility in a Photovoltaically Active Blend (Adv. Energy Mater. 2/2011) (page 145)

      Neil D. Treat, Michael A. Brady, Gordon Smith, Michael F. Toney, Edward J. Kramer, Craig J. Hawker and Michael L. Chabinyc

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190008

      This article corrects:

      Interdiffusion of PCBM and P3HT Reveals Miscibility in a Photovoltaically Active Blend

      Vol. 1, Issue 1, 82–89, Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2010

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. SINGLE MATERIAL SOLAR CELLS: Single Material Solar Cells: the Next Frontier for Organic Photovoltaics? (Adv. Energy Mater. 2/2011) (page 146)

      Jean Roncali

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190009

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      Donor-acceptor ambipolar materials capable of transpor ing positive and negative charges can greatly simplify fabrication of organic solar cells and solve some of the fundamental problems posed by these devices. Jean Roncali presents a brief overview of the work on this challenging topic and discusses some possible strategies for future research. on p. 147

  6. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Single Material Solar Cells: the Next Frontier for Organic Photovoltaics? (pages 147–160)

      Jean Roncali

      Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000008

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      Fullerene-conjugated systems dyads, di-block copolymers, and self-organized donor-acceptor molecules represent different possible strategies for the realization of single-material organic solar cells (SMOCs). An overview of these various approaches is presented in order to discuss possible directions for future research.

  7. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Lithium Fast-Ionic Conduction in Complex Hydrides: Review and Prospects (pages 161–172)

      Motoaki Matsuo and Shin-ichi Orimo

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000012

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      Complex hydrides exhibit lithium fast-ionic conduction (see graphic), which implies that these materials can potentially be used as solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. In this review, first, fast-ionic conduction in LiBH4 is presented, and then the conceptual development of complex hydrides is discussed as a new category of solid-state lithium fast-ionic conductors, along with future prospects.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. DOWN-CONVERSION WHITE OLEDS: Down-Conversion White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Microcavity Structure (Adv. Energy Mater. 2/2011) (page 173)

      Jaewon Lee, Neetu Chopra, Debasis Bera, Sergey Maslov, Sang-Hyun Eom, Ying Zheng, Paul Holloway, Jiangeng Xue and Franky So

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190010

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      Franky So and co-workers report on a high effi ciency microcavity downcon-version white organic light-emitting diodes. By incorporating a film of down-conversion phosphors within the device, a luminous efficiency of 99 lm/W at 30 cd/m2 can be obtained, paving the way for more effi cient solid-state lighting devices. On p. 174

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Down-Conversion White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Microcavity Structure (pages 174–178)

      Jaewon Lee, Neetu Chopra, Debasis Bera, Sergey Maslov, Sang-Hyun Eom, Ying Zheng, Paul Holloway, Jiangeng Xue and Franky So

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000014

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      Highly efficient down-conversion phosphors are demonstrated in a microcavity down-conversion white OLED. Using a down-conversion phosphors film, part of the blue light emitted from the microcavity blue OLED is converted to yellow and red light, resulting in white light emission. The photograph shows the image of a working device.

    2. A New Approach to Develop Safe All-Inorganic Monolithic Li-Ion Batteries (pages 179–183)

      Abelmaula Aboulaich, Renaud Bouchet, Gaëlle Delaizir, Vincent Seznec, Laurence Tortet, Mathieu Morcrette, Patrick Rozier, Jean-Marie Tarascon, Virginie Viallet and Mickaël Dollé

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000050

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      Bulk-type all-solid-state inorganic Li-ion batteries can be prepared in one step in few minutes using spark plasma sintering. The self-supported cells display thick composite electrodes of up to 800 μm, which offer high surface capacities of up to 10 mAh.cm−2. Such technology is safer than classical Li-ion batteries and offers good electrochemical properties at temperatures above 100 °C.

    3. Solvent-Annealed Crystalline Squaraine: PC70BM (1:6) Solar Cells (pages 184–187)

      Guodan Wei, Siyi Wang, Kai Sun, Mark E. Thompson and Stephen R. Forrest

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100045

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      It is demonstrated that squaraine:PC70BM blends can result in solar cells with high efficiency and fill factor when the nano­structure scale is increased to lead to conduction of photogenerated carriers to the electrodes. Morphological control occurs by a combination of thermal and solvent annealing of these small molecule, solution-processed bulk heterojunction cells. Peak efficiencies of a population of devices is 5.2% at fill factors of 0.5 are achieved under optimized conditions.

    4. Controlling Molecular Packing for Charge Transport in Organic Thin Films (pages 188–193)

      Liqiang Li, Wenping Hu, Harald Fuchs and Lifeng Chi

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000021

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      Tuning of the packing mode, including the film morphology, molecular orientation, and phase state of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc), is demonstrated, and yields optimal parallel and vertical channels for charge transport. On a pure SiO2 surface, the ClAlPc molecules lie flat and grow in the Volmer–Weber mode, resulting in a cone-array structure that is highly desirable for heterojunction organic solar cells and organic field emission. On an OTS-modified surface, the ClAlPc molecules stand obliquely and Stranski–Krastanov growth of a continuous and flat film occurs, which is suitable for organic transistors.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Progress Report
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. V2O5 Nano-Electrodes with High Power and Energy Densities for Thin Film Li-Ion Batteries (pages 194–202)

      Yanyi Liu, Michael Clark, Qifeng Zhang, Danmei Yu, Dawei Liu, Jun Liu and Guozhong Cao

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000037

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      Additive-free nanostructured V2O5 thin film cathodes prepared by cathodic deposition show high Li+ intercalation capacity with excellent rate capability. The high energy density (900 W h kg−1 at 1.3 C), high power density (28 kW kg−1 at 70 C), and enhanced phase transitions are attributed to the nanostructure, which provides short Li+ diffusion pathways and sufficient accessible sites for Li+ intercalation.

    2. A Durable Alternative for Proton-Exchange Membranes: Sulfonated Poly(Benzoxazole Thioether Sulfone)s (pages 203–211)

      Dan Zhao, Jinhuan Li, Min-Kyu Song, Baolian Yi, Huamin Zhang and Meilin Liu

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000062

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      Stable and cheap: Sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s have been designed and synthesized to enhance the dimensional stability, resistance to oxidation, and inherent stability of their polymer backbone. The membranes based on these co-polymers exhibit comparable proton conductivity and fuel-cell performance to those of a NRE 212 membrane (see graphic) but with improved durability and reduced cost.

    3. Amorphous Carbon Coated High Grain Boundary Density Dual Phase Li4Ti5O12-TiO2: A Nanocomposite Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries (pages 212–220)

      Md. Mokhlesur Rahman, Jia-Zhao Wang, Mohd Faiz Hassan, David Wexler and Hua Kun Liu

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000051

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      A nanocomposite of high grain boundary density Li4Ti5O12-TiO2-C is synthesized by a simple molten salt process and its electrochemical properties are investigated in this study. For comparison, Li4Ti5O12 and Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 are also investigated. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the carbon incorporated grain boundary plays an important role in both the capacity retention and the rate capability of the electrode.

    4. A Systematic Approach to Solvent Selection Based on Cohesive Energy Densities in a Molecular Bulk Heterojunction System (pages 221–229)

      Bright Walker, Arnold Tamayo, Duc T. Duong, Xuan-Dung Dang, Chunki Kim, Jimmy Granstrom and Thuc-Quyen Nguyen

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000054

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      Hansen solubility parameters were calculated for two bulk heterojunction materials, DPP(TBFu)2 and PC71BM, by measuring their solubility in 29 different solvents. The dispersive, polar, and H-bonding parameters were found to be (19.3, 4.8, 6.3) and (20.2, 5.4, 4.5) MPa1/2, respectively. These Hansen parameters are used to identify several good solvents for preparing bulk heterojunction films.

    5. Polymer Blend Solar Cells Based on a High-Mobility Naphthalenediimide-Based Polymer Acceptor: Device Physics, Photophysics and Morphology (pages 230–240)

      Jennifer R. Moore, Sebastian Albert-Seifried, Akshay Rao, Sylvain Massip, Benjamin Watts, David J. Morgan, Richard H. Friend, Christopher R. McNeill and Henning Sirringhaus

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000035

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      The origin of the low efficiency of an all-polymer blend solar cell comprising two high mobility polymers with complementary optical and electronic properties is investigated. Transient absorption spectroscopy and microscopy studies reveal ultrafast (sub-200 ps) geminate recombination resulting from an unfavorable morphology as the cause.

    6. Ligand-Assisted Assembly Approach to Synthesize Large-Pore Ordered Mesoporous Titania with Thermally Stable and Crystalline Framework (pages 241–248)

      Junyong Zhang, Yonghui Deng, Dong Gu, Shutao Wang, Lan She, Renchao Che, Zhong-Sheng Wang, Bo Tu, Songhai Xie and Dongyuan Zhao

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000004

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      A high power-conversion efficiency (5.45%) is achieved when a thermally stable and large-pore ordered mesoporous TiO2 with a highly crystalline framework is employed as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell. A novel ligand-assisted assembly approach for the synthesis of the TiO2 is described (see graphic). The products have an ordered primary cubic mesostructure with large, uniform pore diameters of about 16.0 nm.

    7. Microstructure of Nanoscaled La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ Cathodes for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (pages 249–258)

      Levin Dieterle, Pascal Bockstaller, Dagmar Gerthsen, Jan Hayd, Ellen Ivers-Tiffée and Uwe Guntow

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000036

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      Nanocrystalline and porous La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells can be fabricated by sol-gel dip coating. The achieved microstructure is investigated by means of scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography. The high porosity (up to 45%) and resulting large surface area are key features for the outstanding electrochemical performance of the cathodes.

    8. Quantum Dot–Sensitized Solar Cells Featuring CuS/CoS Electrodes Provide 4.1% Efficiency (pages 259–264)

      Zusing Yang, Chia-Ying Chen, Chi-Wei Liu, Chi-Lin Li and Huan-Tsung Chang

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000029

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      Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells featuring CuS/CoS relative to Pt counter electrodes provide greater energy conversion efficiency (4.1 ± 0.2% vs. 3.0 ± 0.1%) and are more stable. The improved performance is attributed to the greater electrocatalytic activity, higher reflectivity, and lower charge-transfer resistance of these electrode materials relative to platinum.

    9. Synthesis and Characterization of Acceptor-Substituted Oligothiophenes for Solar Cell Applications (pages 265–273)

      Amaresh Mishra, Christian Uhrich, Egon Reinold, Martin Pfeiffer and Peter Bäuerle

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100026

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      A new family of dicyanovinylene-substituted oligothiophenes have been developed as donor materials for application in vacuum-processed m-i-p type solar cells. A clear structure-property correlation is identified from optical, electrochemical and photovoltaic studies. In planar heterojunction solar cells these oligomers show power conversion efficiencies of in the range of 1.5 to 3% and high VOC of up to 0.96 V.

    10. New Insights to Self-Aggregation in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for High-Energy Electrochemical Devices (pages 274–281)

      Miriam Kunze, Sangsik Jeong, Elie Paillard, Monika Schönhoff, Martin Winter and Stefano Passerini

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000052

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      The aggregation of pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids is investigated and identified by NMR-relaxation measurements. The cation aggregation itself is dependent on the side chain length and the dissolution of a lithium salt. These results are supported by Raman investigations. Furthermore, the self-diffusion coefficients are correlated with the mobility of the Ionic liquids cation and anion, and the lithium cation.

    11. Stable and Efficient Solid-State Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells Based on a Series of Hydrophobic Iridium Complexes (pages 282–290)

      Rubén D. Costa, Enrique Ortí, Daniel Tordera, Antonio Pertegás, Henk J. Bolink, Stefan Graber, Catherine E. Housecroft, Ludmila Sachno, Markus Neuburger and Edwin C. Constable

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000069

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      A series of ionic iridium(III) complexes is prepared and evaluated in solid-state light-emitting electrochemical cells; the attachment of methyl and phenyl groups leads to a strong increase in solid-state photoluminescence, which is reflected in a high device efficiency at high luminance values.

    12. Self-Tuning the Carrier Concentration of PbTe/Ag2Te Composites with Excess Ag for High Thermoelectric Performance (pages 291–296)

      Yanzhong Pei, Andrew F. May and G. Jeffrey Snyder

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000072

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      Temperature dependent solubility of a dopant is utilized to achieve a naturally graded carrier concentration, leading to a significant enhancement of the average thermoelectric figure of merit. This work opens the field to consider naturally graded dopants as a new mechanism for high-performance thermoelectrics.

    13. Polythiophene:Perylene Diimide Solar Cells – the Impact of Alkyl-Substitution on the Photovoltaic Performance (pages 297–302)

      Valentin Kamm, Glauco Battagliarin, Ian A. Howard, Wojciech Pisula, Alexey Mavrinskiy, Chen Li, Klaus Müllen and Frédéric Laquai

      Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000006

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      The power conversion efficiency of polythio­phene:perylene diimide (P3HT:PDI) solar cells depends largely on the tendency of the PDI molecules to aggregate and form intermolecular excited states. Interestingly, alkylation of the PDI aromatic core reduces molecular interaction and leads to better photovoltaic performance of P3HT:PDI blends due to a higher short-circuit current, increased open-circuit voltage and improved fill factor of devices.

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