Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 1 Issue 3

May, 2011

Volume 1, Issue 3

Pages 305–452

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Full Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    13. Research News
    1. Organic Solar Cells: Halogenated Boron Subphthalocyanines as Light Harvesting Electron Acceptors in Organic Photovoltaics (Adv. Energy Mater. 3/2011) (page 305)

      Paul Sullivan, Amelie Duraud, lan Hancox, Nicola Beaumont, Giorgio Mirri, James H.R. Tucker, Ross A. Hatton, Michael Shipman and Tim S. Jones

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190011

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By tuning frontier orbital energies through selective halogenation of the periphery of the organic framework, new light harvesting electron acceptors based on boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) can be made, report Ross Hatton, Michael Shipman, Tim Jones, and co-workers on p. 352. Planar heterojunction organic photo-voltaics made using a Cl6-SubPc acceptor deliver an exceptionally high open-circuit voltage, good power conversion efficiency, and improved operational stability in comparison to similar devices made using C60 as the acceptor material. Cover design by Paul Sullivan.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Full Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    13. Research News
    1. Large-Scale Energy Storage: A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-Scale Energy Storage (Adv. Energy Mater. 3/2011) (page 306)

      Liyu Li, Soowhan Kim, Wei Wang, M. Vijayakumar, Zimin Nie, Baowei Chen, Jianlu Zhang, Guanguang Xia, Jianzhi Hu, Gordon Graff, Jun Liu and Zhenguo Yang

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190012

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      Though considered a promising large-scale storage device for regulating renewable energy supply during calm and cloudy weather, the vana-dium redox battery's use has been limited by its inability to work well in a wide range of temperatures and its low energy density. Adding hydro-chloric acid to the sulfuric acid electrolyte typically used in vanadium redox flow batteries increased the batteries' energy storage capacity by 70% and expanded the operational temperature range, report Liyu Li, Zhenguo Yang, and co-workers on p. 394.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Full Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    13. Research News
  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Full Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    13. Research News
    1. Recent Progress in the Development of Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (pages 314–332)

      Peter I. Cowin, Christophe T. G. Petit, Rong Lan, John T. S. Irvine and Shanwen Tao

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100108

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      Research into solid oxide fuel cells has escalated significantly within the last 20 years. Recent progress in the area is concentrated on lowering the temperature of operation to alleviate those problems associated with high temperature operation, whilst maintaining appropriate levels of performance. Recent developments in anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells are discussed, alongside other considerations such as the use of alternative fuels.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
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    10. Full Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    13. Research News
    1. Enabling Sodium Batteries Using Lithium-Substituted Sodium Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathodes (pages 333–336)

      Donghan Kim, Sun-Ho Kang, Michael Slater, Shawn Rood, John T. Vaughey, Naba Karan, Mahalingam Balasubramanian and Christopher S. Johnson

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000061

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      Layered Na0.85Li0.17Ni0.21Mn0.64O2 is synthesized and evaluated as a cathode in Na batteries. The resulting P2 crystal structure allows for single-phase reversible Na intercalation reaction demonstrating 100 mAhg−1. The cathode can be discharged with high rate (65 mAhg−1 at 25 C rate). The presence of Li and the electronic ordering of Ni(II)/Mn(IV) in the transition metal layer is responsible for material stability.

    2. A Simple and Highly Efficient Method for Surface Treatment of Ti Substrates for Use in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 337–342)

      Ho-Gyeong Yun, Byeong-Soo Bae and Man Gu Kang

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000044

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      Ti foil for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is treated in a HNO3-HF solution. With the exception of cleaning, no additional pre- or post-treatment is performed. This surface-treatment method simultaneously improves electrical and optical behavior, resulting in a highly increased performance in terms of all figures of merit: Voc, Jsc, FF, and power conversion efficiency. An overall efficiency of 9.20% can be achieved by use of such HNO3-HF-treated Ti substrates in DSSCs.

    3. A High-Performance, Nanostructured Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ Cathode for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (pages 343–346)

      Bin Liu, Xiaobo Chen, Yonglai Dong, Samuel S. Mao and Mojie Cheng

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100042

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      Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) cathodes are prepared on NiO-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/YSZ composite substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and the screen-printing method. The cathode by PLD outperforms that by screen-printing, with an enhancement of over 150% in the maximum power, which can be attributed to the PLD-enabled smaller internal resistance within the cathode and the reduced interfacial resistance between the cathode and the electrolyte.

    4. Flexible Morphology Design of 3D-Macroporous LiMnPO4 Cathode Materials for Li Secondary Batteries: Ball to Flake (pages 347–351)

      HoChun Yoo, MinKi Jo, Bong-Soo Jin, Hyun-Soo Kim and Jaephil Cho

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000049

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      3DM- LiMnPO4 balls and flakes are prepared via an impregnation method using a PMMA template. Both 3DM ball and flake structures demonstrated superior capacity retention to previously reported LiMnPO4 prepared by various methods.

    5. Halogenated Boron Subphthalocyanines as Light Harvesting Electron Acceptors in Organic Photovoltaics (pages 352–355)

      Paul Sullivan, Amelie Duraud, lan Hancox, Nicola Beaumont, Giorgio Mirri, James H.R. Tucker, Ross A. Hatton, Michael Shipman and Tim S. Jones

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100036

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By tuning the frontier orbital energies through selective halogenation of the periphery of the organic framework, new light harvesting electron acceptors based on boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) have been made. Planar heterojunction organic photovoltaics made using a Cl6-SubPc acceptor deliver an exceptionally high open-circuit voltage (∼1.3 V), good power conversion efficiency (∼2.7%) and improved operational stability in comparison to similar devices made using C60 as the acceptor material.

    6. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Abundant Renewable Natural Organic Chemicals for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes (pages 356–361)

      Lu Wei, Marta Sevilla, Antonio B. Fuertes, Robert Mokaya and Gleb Yushin

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100019

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      Cellulose, potato starch, and eucalyptus wood saw dust were transformed into porous carbons with micropore surface areas of up to 2387 m2/g. The specific capacitance of the produced carbons approaches 236 F/g (100 F/cc) when measured in a symmetric configuration in an organic electrolyte. Charge-discharge tests showed excellent capacitance retention with capacitance of up to 175 F/g at an ultra-high current density of 20 A/g.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Full Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    13. Research News
    1. POLYMER SOLAR CELLS: In Situ X-Ray Study of Drying-Temperature Influence on the Structural Evolution of Bulk-Heterojunction Polymer–Fullerene Solar Cells Processed by Doctor-Blading (Adv. Energy Mater. 3/2011) (page 362)

      Monamie Sanyal, Benjamin Schmidt-Hansberg, Michael F. G. Klein, Alexander Colsmann, Carmen Munuera, Alexei Vorobiev, Uli Lemmer, Wilhelm Schabel, Helmut Dosch and Esther Barrena

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190014

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      In situ X-ray measurements give insight into the effect of substrate temperature on the structural evolution of doctor-bladed P3HT:PCBM blends during the transition from wet to solid, report Benjamin Schmidt-Hansberg, Esther Barrena, and co-workers. Drying the active layer at lower temperature (10° C) leads to a better nanomorphology with a finer interpenetrating network, and may be an easy route for the optimization of the performance in doctor-bladed solar cells. on p. 363

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Full Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    13. Research News
    1. In Situ X-Ray Study of Drying-Temperature Influence on the Structural Evolution of Bulk-Heterojunction Polymer–Fullerene Solar Cells Processed by Doctor-Blading (pages 363–367)

      Monamie Sanyal, Benjamin Schmidt-Hansberg, Michael F. G. Klein, Alexander Colsmann, Carmen Munuera, Alexei Vorobiev, Uli Lemmer, Wilhelm Schabel, Helmut Dosch and Esther Barrena

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100007

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      In situ X-ray measurements give insight into the effect of substrate temperature on the structural evolution of doctor–bladed poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blends during the transition from wet to solid. Drying the active layer at lower temperature (10 °C) leads to a better nanomorphology with a finer interpenetrating network, and may be an easy route for the optimization of the performance in doctor–bladed solar cells.

    2. High-Performance, Layered, 3D-LiCoO2 Cathodes with a Nanoscale Co3O4 Coating via Chemical Etching (pages 368–372)

      Sookyung Jeong, Soojin Park and Jaephil Cho

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100029

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      Chemical etching concurrently modifies pristine to layer-by-layer 3D-LiCoO2 with a Co3O4 coating. Not only can the layered morphology affect the high electrochemical performance, but also the coating effect reduces the structure instability of the LiCoO2 during cycling. This process can be applied to design other compounds to enhance their performance in Li-ion batteries.

    3. Highly Efficient Silicon Nanoarray Solar Cells by a Single-Step Plasma-Based Process (pages 373–376)

      S. Xu, S. Y Huang, I. Levchenko, H. P. Zhou, D. Y. Wei, S. Q. Xiao, L. X. Xu, W. S. Yan and K. Ostrikov

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100085

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      Highly efficient solar cells (conversion efficiency 11.9%, fill factor 70%) based on the vertically aligned single-crystalline nanostructures are fabricated without any pre-fabricated p-n junctions in a very simple, single-step process of Si nanoarray formation by etching p-type Si(100) wafers in low-temperature environment-friendly plasmas of argon and hydrogen mixtures.

    4. Solution Processed Vanadium Pentoxide as Charge Extraction Layer for Organic Solar Cells (pages 377–381)

      Kirill Zilberberg, Sara Trost, Hans Schmidt and Thomas Riedl

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100076

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      Solution processed V2O5 films prepared via a sol-gel technique are used to replace PEDOT:PSS as hole extraction interlayers in polymer:fullerene solar cells. A high work function of 5.6 eV is found for the V2O5 layers without any post-processing (annealing or plasma treatment). A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3%, comparable to reference devices using PEDOT:PSS is verified. Concomitantly, a substantial improvement in device stability is demonstrated.

  8. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Full Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    13. Research News
    1. A Self-Template Strategy for the Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbon Nanofibers as Advanced Supercapacitor Electrodes (pages 382–386)

      Wei Li, Fan Zhang, Yuqian Dou, Zhangxiong Wu, Haijing Liu, Xufang Qian, Dong Gu, Yongyao Xia, Bo Tu and Dongyuan Zhao

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000096

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      Self-construction: A facile self-templating strategy is presented for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanofibers by using zinc glycolate fibers as the built-in template. The spectacular architectures show excellent performances as recommended electrode material for electrochemical capacitors.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
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    1. Catalytic De/Hydrogenation in Mg by Co-Doped Ni and VOx on Active Carbon: Extremely Fast Kinetics at Low Temperatures and High Hydrogen Capacity (pages 387–393)

      Yi Jia, Lina Cheng, Nan Pan, Jin Zou, Gaoqing (Max) Lu and Xiangdong Yao

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000025

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      A novel multi-component catalyst Ni-VOx/AC is synthesized and exhibits superior hydrogen storage properties when milled with Mg. The images shows a comparison of the capacity and average kinetics in 1 min of hydrogenation for Mg-based nanocomposites at 150 °C (left blue axes) and of 10 min of dehydrogenation at 300 °C (right green axes). This highlights the enhanced hydrogen storage property, which is ascribed to different catalytic roles of Ni, VOx and AC in nano-Ni-VOx/AC catalyst doping.

    2. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-Scale Energy Storage (pages 394–400)

      Liyu Li, Soowhan Kim, Wei Wang, M. Vijayakumar, Zimin Nie, Baowei Chen, Jianlu Zhang, Guanguang Xia, Jianzhi Hu, Gordon Graff, Jun Liu and Zhenguo Yang

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100008

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      A new vanadium redox flow battery has been developed. This battery uses sulfate-chloride mixed electrolytes, which are capable of dissolving 2.5 M vanadium, representing about a 70% increase in energy capacity over the current sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of −5 to 50 °C, potentially eliminating the need for electrolyte temperature control in practical applications.

    3. On the Effect of the Amorphous Silicon Microstructure on the Grain Size of Solid Phase Crystallized Polycrystalline Silicon (pages 401–406)

      Kashish Sharma, Annalisa Branca, Andrea Illiberi, Frans D. Tichelaar, Mariadriana Creatore and Mauritius C. M. van de Sanden

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000074

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      Increasing the microstructure parameter R* leads to increases in both the average and maximum grain size of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si). This demonstrates that R* is a key parameter in determining the final grain size of annealed poly-Si films. The understanding of the dependence of the grain size on the microstructure may lead to a significant improvement of the performance of poly-Si-based solar cells.

    4. The Effect of Hole Transport Material Pore Filling on Photovoltaic Performance in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 407–414)

      John Melas-Kyriazi, I-Kang Ding, Arianna Marchioro, Angela Punzi, Brian E. Hardin, George F. Burkhard, Nicolas Tétreault, Michael Grätzel, Jacques-E. Moser and Michael D. McGehee

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100046

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      Hole transport material (HTM) pore filling is shown to strongly impact the efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Increasing the pore filling fraction improves the coverage of dye molecules with HTM, reduces the hole concentration at the TiO2/dye/HTM interface, and improves the percolation of holes in the HTM, giving increased hole injection efficiency and reduced recombination.

    5. Surface-Plasmon Assisted Energy Conversion in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 415–421)

      Bo Ding, Bong Jae Lee, Mengjin Yang, Hyun Suk Jung and Jung-Kun Lee

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000080

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      The effect of plasmonic core-shell structures, consisting of dielectric cores and metallic nanoshells, on energy conversion in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. Plasmonic particles that couple with visible light significantly increase the energy conversion efficiency in DSSCs, in spite of the decrease in the amount of adsorbed dye.

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
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    10. Full Papers
    11. Frontispiece
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    13. Research News
    1. STORAGE MATERIALS: Flexible Nano-felts of Carbide-Derived Carbon with Ultra-high Power Handling Capability (Adv. Energy Mater. 3/2011) (page 422)

      Volker Presser, Lifeng Zhang, Jun Jie Niu, John McDonough, Carlos Perez, Hao Fong and Yury Gogotsi

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190015

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      Electrospun TiC nano-felt with fiber diameters of ≈ 130 nm can be conformally transformed into carbide-derived carbon (CDC) after heat treatment in chlorine, report Hao Fong, Yuri Gogotsi and co-workers. The TiC-CDC nano-felts have been studied as flexible and binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors, and the results have demonstrated a high gravimetric capacitance and a superior power handling capability compared to conventional activated carbon electrodes. on p. 423

  11. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    1. Flexible Nano-felts of Carbide-Derived Carbon with Ultra-high Power Handling Capability (pages 423–430)

      Volker Presser, Lifeng Zhang, Jun Jie Niu, John McDonough, Carlos Perez, Hao Fong and Yury Gogotsi

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100047

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      Mechanically flexible nano-felts of carbide-derived carbon (CDC) are obtained through chlorination of an electrospun TiC nano-felt precursor. They show an ultra-high power handling capability: 50% of the initial capacitance (110 F/g in 1 M H2SO4 and 63 F/g in 1.5 M TEA-BF4 in acetonitrile) can still be retained at the high scan rate of 5 V/s.

    2. Nitrile-Substituted QA Derivatives: New Acceptor Materials for Solution-Processable Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 431–439)

      Tianlei Zhou, Tao Jia, Bonan Kang, Fenghong Li, Mats Fahlman and Yue Wang

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100082

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      A novel light-absorbing DCN-nCQA compound that can be used as the acceptor in BHJ solar cells is reported. By introducing DCN-nCQA, the range of absorption of sunlight is expanded to 700 nm (see image), suggesting the possibility of achieving efficient solar cells by using co-absorbed donor and acceptor materials.

    3. An Electrode Design Rule for Organic Photovoltaics Elucidated Using Molecular Nanolayers (pages 440–447)

      Robert M. Cook, Lara-Jane Pegg, Sophie L. Kinnear, Oliver S. Hutter, Richard J. H. Morris and Ross A. Hatton

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100027

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      The extent to which spontaneous ground-state charge transfer from the donor layer to the hole-extracting electrode in bi-layer organic photovoltaics impacts device efficiency is investigated using a pair of model high work function electrodes based on silane nanolayer derivatized indium-tin oxide glass. Silane nanolayers at this interface are also shown to be a remarkably effective means of improving the interfacial stability under constant solar illumination.

  12. Research News

    1. Top of page
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    5. Review
    6. Communications
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    1. Graphene Based Materials: Enhancing Solar Energy Harvesting (pages 448–452)

      Chun Xian Guo, Guan Hong Guai and Chang Ming Li

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100119

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      Due to their excellent electronic and phy­siochemical properties, graphene based materials have been extensively explored for solar energy harvesting as either electron and hole transport materials, buffer layers, or window and counter electrodes. This research news surveys very recent advances in this emerging field with emphasis on fundamental understanding of their enhancement mechanism, while discussing future challenges.

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