Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 1 Issue 6

November, 2011

Volume 1, Issue 6

Pages 973–1233

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells: Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Quantum Dots for Solid-State Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2011) (page 973)

      Thomas P. Brennan, Pendar Ardalan, Han-Bo-Ram Lee, Jonathan R. Bakke, I-Kang Ding, Michael D. McGehee and Stacey F. Bent

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190028

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      CdS quantum dots are grown during the nuclea-tion phase of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and harvest light in a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC), report Stacey Bent, Michael McGehee, and co-workers on p. 1169. Dimethylcadmium molecules are shown penetrating a nanoporous TiO2 substrate and reacting with surface sites on the CdS quantum dots. Once filled with a solid-state hole conductor, the quantum dots—whose bandgaps are functions of the number of ALD cycles performed—absorb photons and inject excited electrons into the TiO2.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Organic Solar Cells: Significantly Reduced Bimolecular Recombination in a Novel Silole-Based Polymer: Fullerene Blend (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2011) (page 974)

      Tracey M. Clarke, Deanna B. Rodovsky, Andrew A. Herzing, Jeff Peet, Gilles Dennler, Dean DeLongchamp, Christoph Lungenschmied and Attila J. Mozer

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190029

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      The inside cover depicts a polymer:fullerene solar cell based on a novel silole-based donor:acceptor copolymer. On p. 1062, Tracey M. Clarke, A. J. Mozer and co-workers show a significant reduction in bimolecular recombination coefficient compared to the expected Langevin model, which allows larger drift lengths and consequently, the coating of thick photoactive layers without significant drop in the electrical fill factor.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2011) (pages 975–985)

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190026

  4. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Correction: Spinel-Layered Core-Shell Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries (page 986)

      Yonghyun Cho, Sanghan Lee, Yongseok Lee, Taeeun Hong and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190027

      This article corrects:

      Spinel-Layered Core-Shell Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

      Vol. 1, Issue 5, 821–828, Article first published online: 19 JUL 2011

  5. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Nanocrystallite Aggregates (pages 988–1001)

      Qifeng Zhang, Kwangsuk Park, Junting Xi, Daniel Myers and Guozhong Cao

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100352

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      Oxide nanocrystallite aggregates are a new type of nanostructure for dye-sensitized solar cell applications, with the advantages of providing large surface area, generating light scattering, enhancing electron transport, and facilitating electrolyte diffusion. Further optimization of the structures of aggregates and photoelectrode films may lead to breakthroughs in the improvement of the power conversion efficiency of exisitng dye-sensitized solar cells.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. A Novel Lithium-Doping Approach for an Advanced Lithium Ion Capacitor (pages 1002–1006)

      Min-Sik Park, Young-Geun Lim, Jin-Hwa Kim, Young-Jun Kim, Jaephil Cho and Jeom-Soo Kim

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100270

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      A new lithium-doping method using a stable lithium metal oxide, Li2MoO3 as an alternative lithium source is proposed. By incorporating Li2MoO3 into cathodes, the necessary lithium-doping process of lithium ion capacitors can be simplified and made more effective. At the same lithium-doping level, better capacity and rate capability are obtained than for the conventional method using metallic lithium.

    2. Radiation-Corrected Harman Method for Characterization of Thermoelectric Materials (pages 1007–1011)

      Xianyu Ao, Johannes de Boor and Volker Schmidt

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100272

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      Thermoelectric materials have received renewed interest in the current search for renewable energy. The Harman method is commonly used to determine thermoelectric properties of materials, but due to parasitic heat losses the accuracy of this method is poor at elevated temperatures. Here, we present a simple and effective approach to correct for radiation loss.

    3. Lithium-Ion Textile Batteries with Large Areal Mass Loading (pages 1012–1017)

      Liangbing Hu, Fabio La Mantia, Hui Wu, Xing Xie, James McDonough, Mauro Pasta and Yi Cui

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100261

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      We integrate Li-ion battery electrode materials into a 3D porous textile conductor by using a simple process. When compared to flat metal current collectors, our 3D porous textile conductor not only greatly facilitates the ability for a high active material mass loading on the battery electrode but also leads to better device performance.

    4. Printed Paper Photovoltaic Cells (pages 1018–1022)

      Arved Hübler, Bystrik Trnovec, Tino Zillger, Moazzam Ali, Nora Wetzold, Markus Mingebach, Alexander Wagenpfahl, Carsten Deibel and Vladimir Dyakonov

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100394

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      Polymer/fullerene solar cells are printed on paper using a combination of gravure and flexographic printing techniques. The printed paper photovoltaic cells are free from expensive electrodes made with indium–tin oxide, silver, or gold. Oxidized zinc film is used as the electron-collecting layer.

    5. BCP/Ag/MoO3 Transparent Cathodes for Organic Photovoltaics (pages 1023–1028)

      Gwan Ho Jung, Kihyon Hong, Wan Jae Dong, Sungjun Kim and Jong-Lam Lee

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100411

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      Thermally evaporable BCP/Ag/MoO3 is demonstrated as a transparent cathode for flexible OPVs. The optical transmittance of Ag film is enhanced by refractive index-matching layers. BCP/Ag/MoO3 can fulfill the optimum zero-reflection condition, resulting in high transmittance (75.5%) and low sheet resistance (8.6 ohm/sq). BCP/Ag/MoO3 cathodes could be applicable as general transparent cathodes for flexible organic optoelectronic devices.

    6. Near IR-Sensitive, Non-toxic, Polymer/Nanocrystal Solar Cells Employing Bi2S3 as the Electron Acceptor (pages 1029–1035)

      Luis Martinez, Maria Bernechea, F. Pelayo García de Arquer and Gerasimos Konstantatos

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100441

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      Bi2S3 nanocrystals are employed in a polymer/nanocrystal solar cell as a non-toxic inorganic electron acceptor with a high absorption coefficient and a bandgap of 1.3 eV optimal for single-junction solar harnessing. The reported solar cell yields a power conversion efficiency of 0.46% in a bilayer structure and shows an internal quantum efficiency in excess of 70% as a result of efficient exciton dissociation at the interface of Bi2S3 and P3HT.

    7. Novel Three-Dimensional Mesoporous Silicon for High Power Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material (pages 1036–1039)

      Haiping Jia, Pengfei Gao, Jun Yang, Jiulin Wang, Yanna Nuli and Zhi Yang

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100485

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      A lotus-root-like three-dimensional mesoporous silicon is successfully prepared by a magnesiothermic reduction method using SBA-15 silica as both template and silicon precursor. After carbon coating via a chemical vapor deposition process, this anode material shows high reversible capacity of ∼1900 mAh g−1 and excellent rate performance even up to 15C.

    8. Rationally Designed, Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube Back-Contacts for Efficient Solar Devices (pages 1040–1045)

      Cary L. Pint, Kuniharu Takei, Rehan Kapadia, Maxwell Zheng, Alexandra C. Ford, Junjun Zhang, Arash Jamshidi, Rizia Bardhan, Jeffrey J. Urban, Ming Wu, Joel W. Ager, Michael M. Oye and Ali Javey

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100436

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      Structure matters in solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency, demonstrated for TiO2 coated onto designed three-dimensional (3-D) carbon nanofiber scaffolds. Performance enhancement of up to three times compared to flat films can be mostly attributed to structurally-enhanced carrier collection and photon management processes. Using 3-D templates to balance light absorption depth and carrier collection can lead to a new class of high efficiency and cheap energy conversion devices.

    9. A Direct Route Towards Polymer/Copper Indium Sulfide Nanocomposite Solar Cells (pages 1046–1050)

      Thomas Rath, Michael Edler, Wernfried Haas, Achim Fischereder, Stefan Moscher, Alexander Schenk, Roman Trattnig, Meltem Sezen, Gernot Mauthner, Andreas Pein, Dorith Meischler, Karin Bartl, Robert Saf, Neha Bansal, Saif A. Haque, Ferdinand Hofer, Emil J.W. List and Gregor Trimmel

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100442

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      Polymer/copper indium sulfide (CIS) nanocomposite solar cells are prepared via a capper free in situ preparation route using copper and indium xanthates as precursors, which decompose and form CIS nanoparticles in the polymer matrix during a mild thermal treatment. The solar cells generate current in a wide range of the solar spectrum and exhibit efficiencies up to 2.8%.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Water Processable Graphene Oxide:Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite as Anode Modifier for Polymer Solar Cells (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2011) (page 1051)

      Jaemyung Kim, Vincent C. Tung and Jiaxing Huang

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201190025

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      Graphene oxide:single walled carbon nano-tube thin films are found to be very effective hole transporting layers for polymer solar cells, report Jiaxing Huang and co-workers. The high red/infrared transparency and solution process ability should make the composite an attractive interfacial layer material for high-performance polymer solar cells using low bandgap polymers.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Water Processable Graphene Oxide:Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite as Anode Modifier for Polymer Solar Cells (pages 1052–1057)

      Jaemyung Kim, Vincent C. Tung and Jiaxing Huang

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100466

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      Adding a small amount of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) greatly improves graphene oxide (GO)’s performance as the anode modifying layer for polymer solar cells, putting it on par with the commonly used PEDOT:PSS. The high red/infrared transparency and water processability should make GO:SWCNTs an attractive interfacial layer material for high performance polymer solar cells with low bandgap polymers.

    2. Efficiency Enhancement of Polymer Solar Cells Based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/Indene-C70 Bisadduct via Methylthiophene Additive (pages 1058–1061)

      Yeping Sun, Chaohua Cui, Haiqiao Wang and Yongfang Li

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100378

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      Photovoltaic performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on P3HT/IC70BA can be improved by adding 3 vol% 3-methylthiophene (MT) as a processing additive. The active layer of P3HT/IC70BA with additive treatment showed strengthened absorbance, enhanced crystallinity and improved film morphology. The power conversion efficiency of the PSCs can be improved from 5.80% for devices without the additive to 6.69% with MT additive.

    3. Significantly Reduced Bimolecular Recombination in a Novel Silole-Based Polymer: Fullerene Blend (pages 1062–1067)

      Tracey M. Clarke, Deanna B. Rodovsky, Andrew A. Herzing, Jeff Peet, Gilles Dennler, Dean DeLongchamp, Christoph Lungenschmied and Attila J. Mozer

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100390

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      Charge transport measurements reveal non-Langevin recombination for KP115:PCBM organic photovoltaic devices. This rare but highly advantageous behaviour allows a long charge carrier drift length and thus devices with thick active layers retain a high fill factor. However, no clear correlation with morphology was found, indicating that the origin of non-Langevin recombination may be more complex than previously thought.

    4. An All-Solid-State Flexible Micro-supercapacitor on a Chip (pages 1068–1072)

      Kai Wang, Wenjun Zou, Baogang Quan, Aifang Yu, Haiping Wu, Peng Jiang and Zhixiang Wei

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100488

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      A facile strategy is reported for design and preparation of flexible micro-supercapacitors on a chip based on patterned electrodes of conducting polyaniline nanowire arrays. The interdigital microelectrode is produced by combining microfabrication technology and an in-situ chemical polymerization approach. The assembled flexible micro-supercapacitor showed superior volumetric capacitance, fast rate capability and reduced leakage current using H2SO4- polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolytes.

    5. Current-Voltage Characteristics of Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells: Connection Between Light and Dark Curves (pages 1073–1078)

      Pablo P. Boix, Antonio Guerrero, Luís F. Marchesi, Germà Garcia-Belmonte and Juan Bisquert

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100334

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      A connection is established between recombination and series resistances extracted from impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage curves of polythiophene:fullerene organic solar cells. Recombination is shown to depend exclusively on the (Fermi level) voltage, which allows construction of the current-voltage characteristics in any required conditions based on a restricted set of measurements. The analysis highlights carrier recombination current as the determining mechanism of organic solar cell performance.

    6. In-Plane Vacancy-Enabled High-Power Si–Graphene Composite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 1079–1084)

      Xin Zhao, Cary M. Hayner, Mayfair C. Kung and Harold H. Kung

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100426

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      Introducing a high density of in-plane, nanometer-sized carbon vacancies in graphene sheets greatly enhances ion diffusion across the sheets in a Si–graphene composite. The flexible, self-supporting three-dimensional conducting graphenic scaffold incorporating Si nanoparticles exhibit excellent rate performance and tolerance to structural deformation, which represents an attractive high power-high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    7. An External Quantum Efficiency Technique to Directly Observe Current Balancing in Tandem Organic Photovoltaics (pages 1085–1088)

      Thomas Howells, Edward New, Paul Sullivan and Tim S. Jones

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100462

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      White light bias External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) measurements made on organic tandem cells are demonstrated to provide a quick and direct measurement of current-balancing. EQE measurements under white light bias can therefore be used to help guide or measure optimisation in asymmetric multi-junction cells.

    8. High-Performance Supercapacitors Based on Nanocomposites of Nb2O5 Nanocrystals and Carbon Nanotubes (pages 1089–1093)

      Xiaolei Wang, Ge Li, Zheng Chen, Veronica Augustyn, Xueming Ma, Ge Wang, Bruce Dunn and Yunfeng Lu

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100332

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      Nanocomposites of CNTs and Nb2O5 nanocrystals were fabricated exhibiting excellent conductivity, high specific capacitance, and large voltage window, which led to successful fabrication of asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy densities, power densities, and cycling stability.

    9. Ba0.9Co0.7Fe0.2Mo0.1O3–δ: A Promising Single-Phase Cathode for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (pages 1094–1096)

      Shouguo Huang, Qiliang Lu, Shuangjiu Feng, Guang Li and Chunchang Wang

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100497

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      Ba0.9Co0.7Fe0.2Mo0.1O3–δ (BCFN) is a promising candidate for cathodes in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The area specific resistances of the BCFM cathode are as low as 0.06 and 0.13 Ω cm2 at 600 and 550 °C. The maximum power densities are 1117 and 936 mWcm−2 at 600 and 550 °C. The Mo-doping in the BCFM creates a higher concentration of oxygen vacancies, and assists the electrochemical oxygen reduction via catalytic promotion of the dissociation and surface diffusion of oxygen species on the cathode to the three-phase boundaries, thereby significant improving the performance of the BCFM cathode.

    10. Comparison of Electroluminescence Intensity and Photocurrent of Polymer Based Solar Cells (pages 1097–1100)

      Ulrich Hoyer, Luigi Pinna, Thomas Swonke, Richard Auer, Christoph J. Brabec, Tobias Stubhan and Ning. Li

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100496

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      The reciprocity theorem for solar cell predicts a linear relation between electroluminescence emission and photovoltaic quantum efficiency and an exponential dependence of the electroluminescence signal on the applied voltage. Both dependencies are experimentally verified for polymer based solar cells in this paper. Furthermore it is shown, that electroluminescence imaging of organic solar cells has the potential to visualize the photocurrent distribution significantly faster than standard laser beam induced current mapping (LBIC) techniques.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Ordered Hierarchical Mesoporous/Microporous Carbon Derived from Mesoporous Titanium-Carbide/Carbon Composites and its Electrochemical Performance in Supercapacitor (pages 1101–1108)

      Hai-Jing Liu, Jie Wang, Cong-Xiao Wang and Yong-Yao Xia

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100255

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      A facile approach is demonstrated for preparation of novel ordered hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon by synthesizing ordered mesoporous nanocrystalline titanium-carbide/carbon composites, followed by in situ chlorination of carbides. The unique ordered hierarchical porous structure contributes to attractive power capability and outstanding energy density as a promising material in supercapacitors.

    2. Chalcopyrite Semiconductors for Quantum Well Solar Cells (pages 1109–1115)

      Maziar Afshar, Sascha Sadewasser, Jürgen Albert, Sebastian Lehmann, Daniel Abou-Ras, David Fuertes Marrón, Angus A. Rockett, Esa Räsänen and Martha Ch. Lux-Steiner

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100362

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      The potential of highly absorbing Cu(In,Ga)Se2 semiconductors for quantum well solar cells is investigated. The optical properties of a CuInSe2 well with CuGaSe2 barriers indicate charge carrier confinement, which is numerically confirmed using the effective-mass approximation. Compositional analysis shows interdiffusion of In and Ga at the interfaces. The results provide a promising basis for the development of chalcopyrite-type quantum well structures.

    3. Atomic Layer Deposition of Tin Monosulfide Thin Films (pages 1116–1125)

      Prasert Sinsermsuksakul, Jaeyeong Heo, Wontae Noh, Adam S. Hock and Roy G. Gordon

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100330

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      Pure, stoichiometric, single-phase tin monosulfide (SnS) thin films are successfully deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using the reaction of bis(N,N′-diisopropylacetamidinato)tin(II) [Sn(MeC(N-iPr)2)2] and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at low temperatures (100 to 200 °C). This material is a promising absorber layer in thin film solar cells since it is cheap, non-toxic, and earth-abundant, potentially providing inexpensive PV modules to reach the global energy demand at TW levels.

    4. Towards Engineering Nanoporous Platinum Thin Films for Highly Efficient Catalytic Applications (pages 1126–1132)

      Hyun Young Jung, Do Hyung Kim, Hyun Kyung Chun, Sang Hoon Kim, Chae Sun Lim, Ji Young Byun and Yung Joon Jung

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100402

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      Highly engineered nanoporous Pt films formed by the dealloying of Pt-Si alloys have controlled pore morphologies and isotropic open nanopores. A larger porosity leads to the formation of a higher surface area, a higher current density and a lower charge-transfer resistance during methanol electro-oxidation. The Pt film with the highest surface area shows 32-times-higher catalytic activity than Pt/C films.

    5. Superacidic Electrospun Fiber-Nafion Hybrid Proton Exchange Membranes (pages 1133–1140)

      Yingfang Yao, Zhan Lin, Ying Li, Mataz Alcoutlabi, Hechmi Hamouda and Xiangwu Zhang

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100435

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      Nanofiber/Nafion hybrid membranes are fabricated by incorporating superacidic S-ZrO2 nanofibers into recast Nafion. A large amount of protogenic groups aggregate onto the interfaces between S-ZrO2 fibers and the ionomer matrix, forming continuous pathways for facile proton transport. The resultant hybrid membranes have high proton conductivities, which can be selectively controlled by adjusting the fiber diameter and fiber volume fraction.

    6. Enhancement in Thermoelectric Figure of Merit in Nanostructured Bi2Te3 with Semimetal Nanoinclusions (pages 1141–1147)

      S. Sumithra, Nathan J. Takas, Dinesh K. Misra, Westly M. Nolting, P.F.P. Poudeu and Kevin L. Stokes

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100338

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      Nanocomposites are fabricated by combining chemically synthesized bismuth nanoparticles with mechanically-alloyed Bi2Te3. The resulting material displays electronic transport properties consistent with energy-dependent electronic scattering from the potential barrier established at the semimetal/semiconductor interface. This general synthetic approach can be used to create nanocomposite materials with transport properties engineered for direct thermal to electrical energy conversion applications by appropriate selection of the matrix and nanoparticle inclusions.

    7. In-situ Crosslinking and n-Doping of Semiconducting Polymers and Their Application as Efficient Electron-Transporting Materials in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells (pages 1148–1153)

      Namchul Cho, Hin-Lap Yip, Joshua A. Davies, Peter D. Kazarinoff, David F. Zeigler, Matthew M. Durban, Yukari Segawa, Kevin M. O'Malley, Christine K. Luscombe and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100429

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      The process of in-situ n-doping and crosslinking of semiconducting polymers as an electron-transporting materials is demonstrated for inverted polymer solar cells. Chemical n-doping of semiconducting polymers substantially improves the power conversion efficiency from 0.69% to 3.42%.

    8. Highly Interconnected Si Nanowires for Improved Stability Li-Ion Battery Anodes (pages 1154–1161)

      Hung T. Nguyen, Fei Yao, Mihai R. Zamfir, Chandan Biswas, Kang Pyo So, Young Hee Lee, Seong Min Kim, Seung Nam Cha, Jong Min Kim and Didier Pribat

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100259

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      A high interconnection yield prevents Si nanowires from detaching from their substrate, resulting in improved cycling stability. Si-nanowire-based anodes exhibit a 100% charge retention after 40 cycles at C/2 rate. They can be cycled at a rate of 8C without damage. A Si load of 1.2 mg/cm2, corresponding to a charge density of 4.2 mAh/cm2 is reported for the anode.

    9. Charge Transport and Recombination in Low-Bandgap Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell using Bis-adduct Fullerene (pages 1162–1168)

      Hamed Azimi, Alessia Senes, Markus C. Scharber, Kurt Hingerl and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100331

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      Replacing [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (mono-PCBM) with a bis-adduct analogue of mono-PCBM (bis-PCBM) in bulk heterojunction solar cells blended with silicon-bridged dithiophene polymer leads to enhanced recombination. Given a comparable carrier lifetime for mono- and bis-PCBM devices, the dominant solar cell losses in bis-PCBM devices were attributed to the worse transport properties.

    10. Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Quantum Dots for Solid-State Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1169–1175)

      Thomas P. Brennan, Pendar Ardalan, Han-Bo-Ram Lee, Jonathan R. Bakke, I-Kang Ding, Michael D. McGehee and Stacey F. Bent

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100363

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      CdS quantum dots are grown by atomic layerdeposition (ALD) on a TiO2 nanoporous substrate and used as light absorbers in solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. The island-like growth of CdS during the ALD incubation period yields discrete quantum dots whose size and bandgaps are functions of the number of ALD cycles.

    11. Impact of Fullerene Molecular Weight on P3HT:PCBM Microstructure Studied Using Organic Thin-Film Transistors (pages 1176–1183)

      John G. Labram, James Kirkpatrick, Donal D. C. Bradley and Thomas D. Anthopoulos

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100413

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      The diffusion and clustering of PC61BM and PC71BM in P3HT has been studied using bilayer organic field-effect transistors and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The prerequisite annealing temperature for PC71BM diffusion in P3HT was observed to be higher than that of PC61BM. AFM images suggest that in this system the diffusion of PC71BM in P3HT does not take place homogeneously throughout the film.

    12. A New Model Describing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Kinetics: Model Thin Film SrTi1-xFexO3-δ Mixed Conducting Oxides–a Case Study (pages 1184–1191)

      WooChul Jung and Harry L. Tuller

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100164

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      A model mixed conducting perovskite materials system, SrTi1-xFexO3-δ, is selected, offering the ability to control both the levels of ionic and electronic conductivity as well as the energy band structure. This, in combination with simplified electrode geometry, serves to demonstrate that the rate of oxygen exchange for mixed conducting cathode materials is largely determined by the availability of minority carriers–electrons in the excited state.

    13. The Roles of Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Electrode Buffers in Efficient Polymer Photovoltaics (pages 1192–1198)

      Jun-Yuan Jeng, Ming-Wei Lin, Yao-Jane Hsu, Ten-Chin Wen and Tzung-Fang Guo

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100314

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      A unique process is developed by thermally co-evaporating a poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer with Al metal simultaneously at different ratios in vacuum (10−6 Torr) to prepare the electrode buffers for polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells. This research leads to a novel electrode design – free of salts, additives, and complicated synthesis, and having tunable work function – for fabricating high-performance photovoltaics.

    14. Microstructure Study of Electrochemically Driven LixSi (pages 1199–1204)

      Seoung-Bum Son, James E. Trevey, Hyunchul Roh, Sung-Hwan Kim, Kee-Bum Kim, Jong Soo Cho, Jeong-Tak Moon, Christopher M. DeLuca, Kurt K. Maute, Martin L. Dunn, Heung Nam Han, Kyu Hwan Oh and Se-Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100360

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      Microstructural changes in electrochemically driven LixSi are studied. HRTEM observation of Li2Si samples confirms that a two-phase region is formed with amorphous LixSi at the surface and a crystalline Si phase in the core of particle. A large variety and number of pores are observed in fully lithiated Si anode samples.

    15. A Highly Order-Structured Membrane Electrode Assembly with Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Ultra-Low Pt Loading PEM Fuel Cells (pages 1205–1214)

      Zhi Qun Tian, San Hua Lim, Chee Kok Poh, Zhe Tang, Zetao Xia, Zhiqiang Luo, Pei Kang Shen, Daniel Chua, Yuan Ping Feng, Zexiang Shen and Jianyi Lin

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100371

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      It is of great importance to significantly reduce Pt loading and consequently, the overall cost of fuel cells. Here we present a simple method of fabricating ultra low Pt loading electrodes for PEMFCs using ordered and porous vertically aligned carbon nanotubes as catalyst support. It is possible to substantially reduce the Pt loading by one order of magnitude by application of the new structured electrodes.

    16. Mixed Magnetism for Refrigeration and Energy Conversion (pages 1215–1219)

      Nguyen H. Dung, Zhi Qiang Ou, Luana Caron, Lian Zhang, Dinh T. Cam Thanh, Gilles A. de Wijs, Rob A. de Groot, K. H. Jürgen Buschow and Ekkes Brück

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100252

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      In order to improve the performance of modern refrigerators we have designed multicomponent (Fe2P-type) alloys of which the magnetic entropy changes are particularly large. Electronic band structure calculations have revealed that modification of the strong (Mn) and weak (Fe) magnetic sublattices via substitutions opens the way to attain such extraordinary favorable magnetocaloric properties.

    17. Sulfonated Polyimide Proton Exchange Membranes with Graphene Oxide show Improved Proton Conductivity, Methanol Crossover Impedance, and Mechanical Properties (pages 1220–1224)

      Chi-Yung Tseng, Yun-Sheng Ye, Ming-Yao Cheng, Kuei-Yu Kao, Wei-Chung Shen, John Rick, Jyh-Chien Chen and Bing-Joe Hwang

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100366

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      Graphene oxide has been utilized to enhance the proton conductivity and mechanical properties and reduce the methanol permeability of polymer exchange membranes. The membranes exhibit dramatic improvements in proton conductivity (490.3%), methanol permeability (a 508.9% decrease in methanol permeability and a near 25-fold increase in selectivity of proton conductivity to methanol permeability were achieved at 80 °C) and the mechanical properties (134.4% enhancements in tensile strength at 30 °C) with SPI/GO_0.5 wt%.

    18. Advanced Multi-Fuelled Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (ASOFCs) Using Functional Nanocomposites for Polygeneration (pages 1225–1233)

      Rizwan Raza, Haiying Qin, Qinghua Liu, Mahrokh Samavati, Raquel. B. Lima and Bin Zhu

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100318

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      A cost effective, successful development of an advanced multifuelled solid oxide fuel cell that uses functional nanocomposites for polygeneration applications is reported. Hydrogen, bio-gas, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol were all tested for the ASOFC using different nanocomposite materials at temperatures varying between 300 and 600 °C, much lower than in conventional SOFCs. The high efficiency and performance of the ASOFC at 550 °C was demonstrated using a functional nanocomposite material.

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