Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 10

October, 2012

Volume 2, Issue 10

Pages 1149–1277

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Catalysts: Mixed-PtPd-Shell PtPdCu Nanoparticle Nanotubes Templated from Copper Nanowires as Efficient and Highly Durable Electrocatalysts (Adv. Energy Mater. 10/2012) (page 1149)

      Hui-Hui Li, Chun-Hua Cui, Shuo Zhao, Hong-Bin Yao, Min-Rui Gao, Feng-Jia Fan and Shu-Hong Yu

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290049

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Unique mixed PtPd shelled PtPdCu alloy nanoparticle nanotubes (ANNTs) are synthesized by galvanic displacement with partial sacrificial copper nanowire templates, following electrochemical leaching of non-noble metal Cu in acidic electrolyte, as reported by Shu-Hong Yu and co-workers on page 1182. These core/shell catalysts can significantly reduce the amount of expensive Pt required and strongly improve electrocatalytic activity and durability through modified electronic structure, atomic distribution, and one dimensional structure property.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Optical Absorption Enhancement: Optical Absorption Enhancement in Freestanding GaAs Thin Film Nanopyramid Arrays (Adv. Energy Mater. 10/2012) (page 1150)

      Dong Liang, Yijie Huo, Yangsen Kang, Ken Xingze Wang, Anjia Gu, Meiyueh Tan, Zongfu Yu, Shuang Li, Jieyang Jia, Xinyu Bao, Shuang Wang, Yan Yao, H.-S. Philip Wong, Shanhui Fan, Yi Cui and James S. Harris

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290050

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      III–V compound semiconductor multi-junction solar cells are the most efficient of all solar cells. However, in order to reduce high costs, ultra-thin films with advanced light management are desired. On page 1254, James S. Harris, Yi Cui, Dong Liang, and co-workers report that a 160-nm-thick GaAs thin film of nanopyramid arrays on flexible transparent superstrates demonstrates excellent optical absorption properties. Due to significant antireflection and light trapping effects, the double-sided nanostructures enhance the photon absorption in the thin film by over 80% at near normal incidence and over 100% at 40–70° incidence.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 10/2012)

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290051

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Materials for Direct Hydrocarbon Utilization (pages 1156–1181)

      Xiao-Ming Ge, Siew-Hwa Chan, Qing-Lin Liu and Qiang Sun

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200342

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Solid oxide fuel cell anode materials are of paramount importance for devices based on directly converting hydrocarbon fuels into electric energy by electrochemical means. This review summarizes recent progress in various types of anode materials for direct hydrocarobon utilization.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Mixed-PtPd-Shell PtPdCu Nanoparticle Nanotubes Templated from Copper Nanowires as Efficient and Highly Durable Electrocatalysts (pages 1182–1187)

      Hui-Hui Li, Chun-Hua Cui, Shuo Zhao, Hong-Bin Yao, Min-Rui Gao, Feng-Jia Fan and Shu-Hong Yu

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200207

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The controlled synthesis of mixed-PtPd-shell PtPdCu-alloy nanoparticle nanotubes (ANNTs) is demonstrated by galvanic displacement with partially sacrificial copper-nanowire templates, and following the electrochemical leaching of the non-noble metal Cu in the acidic electrolyte. These core-shell catalysts significantly reduce the amount of expensive Pt and highly improve the electrocatalytic activity and durability through their modified electronic structure, atomic distribution, and 1D structure property.

    2. Green Synthesis of NiO Nanobelts with Exceptional Pseudo-Capacitive Properties (pages 1188–1192)

      Bao Wang, Jun Song Chen, Zhiyu Wang, Srinivasan Madhavi and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200008

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      NiO nanobelts are prepared by a simple, green method. The as-prepared NiO nanobelts have supercapacitive performance that is superior to other NiO-based electrode materials, with a very high specific capacitance of ≈600 F g−1 at a high current density of 5 A g−1, 94% of which is retained after 2000 cycles.

    3. Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Molybdenum Oxide Nanoparticle Hole Transport Layers for Organic Photovoltaic Devices (pages 1193–1197)

      Yun-Ju Lee, Juan Yi, Galen F. Gao, Hilmar Koerner, Kyoungweon Park, Jian Wang, Kaiyuan Luo, Richard A. Vaia and Julia W. P. Hsu

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200229

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      High performance hole transport layers are realized using room temperature solution processing of microwave-synthesized MoOx nanoparticles. Composition of solution-deposited MoOx nanoparticle films can be increased from 10% to 70% MoO3 using air exposure (days) and reaction with H2O2 (minutes). The increased MoO3 content correlates well with improved solar cell performanceto the level of evaporated MoO3 and PEDOT:PSS, with good air stability.

    4. Performance Enhancement of the P3HT/PCBM Solar Cells through NIR Sensitization Using a Small-Bandgap Polymer (pages 1198–1202)

      Tayebeh Ameri, Jie Min, Ning Li, Florian Machui, Derya Baran, Michael Forster, Kristina J. Schottler, Daniel Dolfen, Ullrich Scherf and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200219

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      A smart strategy to significantly improve the energy conversion efficiency of the wide-bandgap polymer P3HT blended in PCBM is demonstrated through NIR sensitization with a low-bandgap polymer. An efficiency of over 4% is achieved by adding 30–40% of the low bandgap polymer Si-PCPDTBT to the binary P3HT:PCBM blend, corresponding to an efficiency improvement of 25% compared to the P3HT:PCBM reference binary blend.

    5. Surface Plasmon and Scattering-Enhanced Low-Bandgap Polymer Solar Cell by a Metal Grating Back Electrode (pages 1203–1207)

      Jingbi You, Xuanhua Li, Feng-xian Xie, Wei E. I. Sha, Johnson H. W. Kwong, Gang Li, Wallace C. H. Choy and Yang Yang

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200108

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The active layer of a low bandgap polymer solar cell has been patterned by a simple imprinting technique, and thin metal oxide/metal layers have been coated on the active layer to form a metal grating back electrode. By finely controlling the distance between the grating and active layer, about 10% short current enhancement (Jsc) is seen, without any obvious degradation to the open circuit voltage or fill factor. The power conversion efficiency increases from 7.20 to 7.73%, which is due to absorption enhancement from waveguide modes, Wood's anomaly, and plasmonic effects.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Factors Governing Intercalation of Fullerenes and Other Small Molecules Between the Side Chains of Semiconducting Polymers Used in Solar Cells (pages 1208–1217)

      Nichole Cates Miller, Eunkyung Cho, Roman Gysel, Chad Risko, Veaceslav Coropceanu, Chad E. Miller, Sean Sweetnam, Alan Sellinger, Martin Heeney, Iain McCulloch, Jean-Luc Brédas, Michael F. Toney and Michael D. McGehee

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200392

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      By systematically varying the properties of conjugated polymers, fullerenes, and small molecules in polymer:fullerene and polymer:small molecule blends used in organic solar cells, their effects on molecular mixing are studied. It is shown that many polymer:fullerene blends exhibit molecular mixing, and the factors that govern molecular mixing are discussed. The discovery of a bimolecular crystal composed of a semiconducting polymer and a non-fullerene acceptor is also reported. Finally, differential scanning calorimetry and molecular simulations are used to probe the strength and nature of the interaction responsible for polymer–fullerene mixing.

    2. Increase in the Figure of Merit by Cd-Substitution in Sn1–xPbxTe and Effect of Pb/Sn Ratio on Thermoelectric Properties (pages 1218–1225)

      Mi-Kyung Han, Xiaoyuen Zhou, Ctirad Uher, Sung-Jin Kim and Mercouri G. Kanatzidis

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200083

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      By controlling the level of Cd-substitution and the Pb/Sn ratio it is shown that the thermoelectric properties of the Sn1–xPbxTe series can be enhanced significantly. The addition of Cd results in a increase in the power factor and a reduction in the thermal conductivity, leading to a figure of merit (ZT) as high as ∼1.2 at 560 K.

    3. A Highly Reversible Nano-Si Anode Enabled by Mechanical Confinement in an Electrochemically Activated LixTi4Ni4Si7 Matrix (pages 1226–1231)

      Seoung-Bum Son, Seul Cham Kim, Chan Soon Kang, Thomas A. Yersak, Yoon-Chang Kim, Chun-Gyoo Lee, Sung-Hwan Moon, Jong Soo Cho, Jeong-Tak Moon, Kyu Hwan Oh and Se-Hee Lee

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200180

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly reversible nano-Si anode is enabled by embedding nano-Si in a Ti4Ni4Si7 matrix. This reduces the maximum stress evolved in the nano-Si by applying a compressive stress to mechanically confine nano-Si expansion during lithiation. The Ti4Ni4Si7 is also a good mixed conductor that isolates nano-Si from liquid electrolyte, preventing parasitic reactions responsible for the formation of SEI layers.

    4. Identifying the Nature of Charge Recombination in Organic Solar Cells from Charge-Transfer State Electroluminescence (pages 1232–1237)

      Gert-Jan A. H. Wetzelaer, Martijn Kuik and Paul W. M. Blom

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200009

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Charge-transfer state electroluminescence is investigated in polymer:fullerene solar cells. It is demonstrated that the charge-transfer state emission originates from free-carrier recombination, rather than a charge-trap-mediated process. The voltage dependence of the electroluminescence quantum efficiency can shed light on nonradiative recombination routes, revealing dominant free-carrier bimolecular recombination in most organic solar cells. This is confirmed by measurements of the illumination-intensity dependence of the open-circuit voltage.

    5. A Polyaniline-Coated Sulfur/Carbon Composite with an Enhanced High-Rate Capability as a Cathode Material for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries (pages 1238–1245)

      Guo-Chun Li, Guo-Ran Li, Shi-Hai Ye and Xue-Ping Gao

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200017

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A polyaniline-coated sulfur/conductive-carbon-black (PANI@S/C) composite presents an exceptional high-rate charge/discharge capability and a high active-sulfur utilization due to the unique core/shell structure and a synergistic effect on the electrical conductivity from both the conductive carbon black in the matrix and the PANI on the surface.

    6. Pathways to a New Efficiency Regime for Organic Solar Cells (pages 1246–1253)

      L. Jan Anton Koster, Sean E. Shaheen and Jan C. Hummelen

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200103

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      Pathways to a new efficiency regime for organic solar cells are presented. A modest increase in the dielectric constant of the materials slows down all recombination mechanisms such that, taken together with energy level optimization, efficiencies of over 20% can be realized. Ultimately the difference in performance between organic and inorganic solar cells may vanish.

    7. Optical Absorption Enhancement in Freestanding GaAs Thin Film Nanopyramid Arrays (pages 1254–1260)

      Dong Liang, Yijie Huo, Yangsen Kang, Ken Xingze Wang, Anjia Gu, Meiyueh Tan, Zongfu Yu, Shuang Li, Jieyang Jia, Xinyu Bao, Shuang Wang, Yan Yao, H.-S. Philip Wong, Shanhui Fan, Yi Cui and James S. Harris

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200022

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A 160 nm thick GaAs thin film of nanopyramid arrays on flexible transparent superstrates demonstrates excellent optical absorption properties. Due to significant antireflection and light trapping effects, the double-sided nanostructures enhance the photon absorption in the thin film by over 80% at near normal incidence and over 100% at 40–70° incidence.

    8. Nanostructured p-n Junctions for Kinetic-to-Electrical Energy Conversion (pages 1261–1268)

      Joe Briscoe, Mark Stewart, Melvin Vopson, Markys Cain, Paul M. Weaver and Steve Dunn

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200205

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      Piezoelectric energy harvesting devices are produced using ZnO nanorod-PEDOT:PSS p-n junctions. Energy densities up to 0.4 mW cm−3 are produced. Stress-voltage and illumination measurements show output consistent with a piezoelectric effect. A model is proposed to explain the function of the p-n junction through regulation of screening rate of the polarisation, which also explains the behavior of previous devices.

    9. Active MnOx Electrocatalysts Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition for Oxygen Evolution and Oxygen Reduction Reactions (pages 1269–1277)

      Katie L. Pickrahn, Sang Wook Park, Yelena Gorlin, Han-Bo-Ram Lee, Thomas F. Jaramillo and Stacey F. Bent

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200230

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Active MnOx/GC catalysts for the oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction reactions are fabricated by atomic layer deposition. Both the MnO and Mn2O3 phases are explored. The Mn2O3 catalyst is amongst the best MnOx catalysts for these reactions. This work opens new avenues for nanoengineering catalysts.

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