Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 11

November, 2012

Volume 2, Issue 11

Pages 1281–1409

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Solar Cells: Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Reduced Interface Recombination (Adv. Energy Mater. 11/2012) (page 1281)

      Song Chen, Cephas E. Small, Chad M. Amb, Jegadesan Subbiah, Tzung-han Lai, Sai-Wing Tsang, Jesse R. Manders, John R. Reynolds and Franky So

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290053

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      Due to intrinsic defects, zinc oxide nanoparticles may induce interfacial recombination when used as the electron extraction layer in an inverted polymer solar cell. On page 1333, Franky So, John R. Reynolds, and co-workers demonstrate that UV-ozone treatment is an effective way to passivate defects in ZnO NPs and reduce interface recombination in a polymer solar cell. As a result, the power conversion efficiency of inverted PDTGTPD: PC71BM cells is improved to 8.1%.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Polymer Solar Cells: Efficiency Increase in Flexible Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with a Nano-Patterned Indium Zinc Oxide Anode (Adv. Energy Mater. 11/2012) (page 1282)

      Dong Hwan Wang, Jason Seifter, Jong Hyeok Park, Dae-Geun Choi and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290054

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A simple nano-imprint technique is used to successfully fabricate efficient flexible bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells based on PCDTBT/PC70BM, as reported by Alan J. Heeger and co-workers on page 1319. The flexible nano-patterned IZO anode with ordered periodic dot structures results in improved light absorption and increased interfacial contact area between the anode and polymer as well as between the polymer and cathode.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 11/2012)

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290055

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Materials Challenges for High Performance Magnetocaloric Refrigeration Devices (pages 1288–1318)

      Anders Smith, Christian R.H. Bahl, Rasmus Bjørk, Kurt Engelbrecht, Kaspar K. Nielsen and Nini Pryds

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200167

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetocaloric materials attract significant interest due to their possible application for more efficient, environmentally friendly refrigeration. Recent years have seen improvements in both materials research and device design (the TOC image shows a device built at the Technical University of Denmark). This article reviews a number of key issues related to the performance and implementation of magnetocaloric materials in actual devices.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Efficiency Increase in Flexible Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with a Nano-Patterned Indium Zinc Oxide Anode (pages 1319–1322)

      Dong Hwan Wang, Jason Seifter, Jong Hyeok Park, Dae-Geun Choi and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200349

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Efficient flexible bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells based on PCDTBT/PC70BM were successfully fabricated by a simple nano-imprint technique. The flexible nano-patterned IZO anode with ordered periodic dot structures led to improved light absorption and increased interfacial contact area between the anode and polymer as well as between the polymer and cathode.

    2. Novel La(Fe,Si)13/Cu Composites for Magnetic Cooling (pages 1323–1327)

      Julia Lyubina, Ullrich Hannemann, Lesley F. Cohen and Mary P. Ryan

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200297

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      An approach to engineering magnetic refrigerant materials with defined thermal transport properties is demonstrated using the example of high magnetocaloric performance La-Fe-Si alloys. A tunability of up to 300% of the thermal conductivity can be achieved in composites consisting of a La(Fe,Si)13 compound and Cu prepared by electroless copper plating without compromising the magnitude of the magnetocaloric effect.

    3. WO3−x/MoO3−x Core/Shell Nanowires on Carbon Fabric as an Anode for All-Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors (pages 1328–1332)

      Xu Xiao, Tianpeng Ding, Longyan Yuan, Yongqi Shen, Qize Zhong, Xianghui Zhang, Yuanzhi Cao, Bin Hu, Teng Zhai, Li Gong, Jian Chen, Yexiang Tong, Jun Zhou and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200380

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      Flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are fabricated from a novel anode – WO3–x/MoO3–x core/shell nanowires on carbon fabric – and a polyaniline cathode (figure). In addition to the high electrochemical performance of the devices, other characteristics, such as low toxicity, flexibility, environmental compatibility, light weight, and low requirements for packaging, make the all-solid-state ASCs potential candidates for applications in energy storage, flexible electronics, and other consumer electronics.

    4. Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Reduced Interface Recombination (pages 1333–1337)

      Song Chen, Cephas E. Small, Chad M. Amb, Jegadesan Subbiah, Tzung-han Lai, Sai-Wing Tsang, Jesse R. Manders, John R. Reynolds and Franky So

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200184

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Interface recombination induced by the defect states in zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-based electron extraction layer is reported as a significant loss-mechanism of photocurrent collection. By choosing appropriate UV–ozone treatment conditions on the zinc oxide layer, inverted polymer solar cells show reduced interface recombination and thus improved power conversion efficiencies of up to 8.1%.

    5. Factors Influencing the Efficiency of Current Collection in Large Area, Monolithic Organic Solar Cells (pages 1338–1342)

      Hui Jin, Almantas Pivrikas, Kwan H. Lee, Muhsen Aljada, Mike Hambsch, Paul L. Burn and Paul Meredith

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200254

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Power loss mechanisms in monolithic 5 cm × 5 cm organic solar cells are investigated by using photocurrent and photovoltage mapping and modeling. A range of electrode contact geometries are employed to confirm the mechanisms for power loss and also find that there exists a maximum critical cell area after which series resistance dominates and performance begins to drop off.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. An Alternative Ionic Conductivity Mechanism for Plastic Crystalline Salt–Lithium Salt Electrolyte Mixtures (pages 1343–1350)

      Wesley A. Henderson, Daniel M. Seo, Qian Zhou, Paul D. Boyle, Joon-Ho Shin, Hugh C. De Long, Paul C. Trulove and Stefano Passerini

      Version of Record online: 7 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200130

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      The phase behavior and conductivity of mixtures of the plastic crystalline salt Et4NTFSI with LiTFSI are extensively characterized. The formation of a low-melting mixed-salt crystalline phase (and the corresponding eutectic system) in this mixture and related mixtures suggests that an alternative conductivity mechanism not based on solid-state diffusion is operable in such mixtures.

    2. The Role of Electron Affinity in Determining Whether Fullerenes Catalyze or Inhibit Photooxidation of Polymers for Solar Cells (pages 1351–1357)

      Eric T. Hoke, I. T. Sachs-Quintana, Matthew T. Lloyd, Isaac Kauvar, William R. Mateker, Alexandre M. Nardes, Craig H. Peters, Nikos Kopidakis and Michael D. McGehee

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200169

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The photooxidation dynamics of polymer fullerene blends for solar cells is characterized for a variety of material combinations. Polymers photobleach faster when blended with smaller electron affinity fullerenes compared to those with larger electron affinities. This can be explained by a mechanism where photogenerated electrons generate the superoxide radical which degrades the polymer.

    3. Symmetric and Asymmetric Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs)/Polybenzimidazole (PBI) Nanocomposite Membranes for Hydrogen Purification at High Temperatures (pages 1358–1367)

      Tingxu Yang, Gui Min Shi and Tai-Shung Chung

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200200

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A ZIF-8/PBI nanocomposite material is molecularly designed for industrial hydrogen purification. Both symmetric flat dense membranes and asymmetric dual-layer hollow fibers are fabricated from this material to demonstrate its impressive hydrogen separation performance and excellent processibility.

    4. Solution-Processed TiO2 Nanoparticles as the Window Layer for CuIn(S,Se)2 Devices (pages 1368–1374)

      Huanping Zhou, Tze-Bin Song, Choong-Heui Chung, Bao Lei, Brion Bob, Rui Zhu, Hsin-Sheng Duan, Chia-Jung Hsu and Yang Yang

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200115

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Solution-processed TiO2 nanocrystals can be used as an effective substitute for sputtered i-ZnO in CuInSxSe1−x solar-cell devices. The film thickness and morphology of the TiO2 affect the device performance. Optimized devices employing TiO2 exhibit power-conversion efficiencies (9.17%) comparable to or even higher than that of the typical intrinsic zinc oxide layer that is used in traditional CuInSxSe1−x devices.

    5. A Supramolecular “Double-Cable” Structure with a 12944 Helix in a Columnar Porphyrin-C60 Dyad and its Application in Polymer Solar Cells (pages 1375–1382)

      Chien-Lung Wang, Wen-Bin Zhang, Hao-Jan Sun, Ryan M. Van Horn, Rahul R. Kulkarni, Chi-Chun Tsai, Chain-Shu Hsu, Bernard Lotz, Xiong Gong and Stephen Z. D. Cheng

      Version of Record online: 7 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200060

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel electron acceptor enables photogenerated carriers with longer lifetimes compared to PCBM. The novel acceptor is a porphyrin-C60 dyad (PCD) with a supramolecular “double-cable” structure, comprising one p-type porphyrin core columnar channel and three helical n-type C60 peripheral channels. These results indicate that PCDs are good electron acceptors for application in high-performance polymer solar cells.

    6. Ionomigration of Neutral Phases in Ionic Conductors (pages 1383–1389)

      I.-Wei Chen, Seung-Wan Kim, Ju Li, Suk-Joong L. Kang and Fuqiang Huang

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200011

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Inclusions in electrochemical cells drift with the dominant ion flow. This distorts grain boundaries (left), which are flexible at higher temperatures. It also causes pore escape from a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia membrane (middle) at 840 °C under 1.9 V, hence sintering of the electroded section, albeit without grain growth (right) because of immobile boundaries.

    7. An All-Organic Non-aqueous Lithium-Ion Redox Flow Battery (pages 1390–1396)

      Fikile R. Brushett, John T. Vaughey and Andrew N. Jansen

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200322

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A proof-of-principle non-aqueous lithium-ion flow battery is proposed based on 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)benzene as a high-potential active species and a quinoxaline-derivative as a low-potential active species. Electrochemical measurements highlight that the choice of electrolyte and of substituent groups can have a significant impact on redox species performance. In initial cell tests, Coulombic and energy efficiencies are ∼70% and ∼37%, respectively, with major charge and discharge plateaus between 1.8–2.4 V and 1.7–1.3 V.

    8. A New Terthiophene-Thienopyrrolodione Copolymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell with High Open-Circuit Voltage (pages 1397–1403)

      Jang Jo, Agnieszka Pron, Philippe Berrouard, Wei Lin Leong, Jonathan D. Yuen, Ji Sun Moon, Mario Leclerc and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200350

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new terthiophene-thienopyrrolodione alternating copolymer with a deep HOMO energy level (5.66 eV) is presented. Integrating the polymer into bulk heterojunction solar cells with [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester ([70]PCBM) leads to an efficiency of over 6% and a high open-circuit voltage of up to 0.94 V, utilizing 1-chloronaphthalene as a processing additive and a relatively low concentration of [70]PCBM in the blend solution.

    9. Top-illuminated Organic Photovoltaics on a Variety of Opaque Substrates with Vapor-printed Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Top Electrodes and MoO3 Buffer Layer (pages 1404–1409)

      Miles C. Barr, Rachel M. Howden, Richard R. Lunt, Vladimir Bulović and Karen K. Gleason

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200112

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Top-illuminated organic photovoltaics are fabricated directly on a variety of opaque substrates, including common fiber-based papers. Oxidative chemical vapor deposition is used to vapor print conformal conductive polymer top electrodes, and power conversion efficiencies of up to 2.8% are achieved, approximately 75% that of the conventional bottom-illuminated cell architecture with indium-tin oxide (ITO) transparent anode.

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