Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 4

April, 2012

Volume 2, Issue 4

Pages 393–493

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Paper
    11. Communication
    12. Full Papers
    1. Nanocomposite Capacitors: Enhanced Energy Storage in Nanocomposite Capacitors through Aligned PZT Nanowires by Uniaxial Strain Assembly (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2012) (page 393)

      Haixiong Tang, Yirong Lin and Henry A. Sodano

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290019

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High energy density capacitors are a key technology for the development of advanced pulsed power electronic devices and electric power systems. On page 469, H. A. Sodano and co-workers demonstrate control of the orientation of the filler to improve the energy density of nanocomposite capacitors. Nanocomposites with aligned PZT nanowires are prepared by uniaxial strain assembly. It is shown that the nanocomposites with nanowires aligned in the axis of the electric field have higher energy density than samples with randomly dispersed nanowires.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Paper
    11. Communication
    12. Full Papers
    1. Roll-to-Roll Coatings: New Low-Bandgap Materials with Good Stabilities and Efficiencies Comparable to P3HT in R2R-Coated Solar Cells (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2012) (page 394)

      Roar Søndergaard, Matthieu Manceau, Mikkel Jørgensen and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290020

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic solar cells have reached the large-scale manufacturing stage. If extremely cheap high-throughput production is to be realized, they have to be manufactured in ambient conditions without the use of vacuum steps. Despite enormous efforts put into developing new low-bandgap (LBG) polymers, until now, the only real candidate which has been stable enough for processing in air has been the well known polymer P3HT. On page 415 R. Søndergaard and co-workers present two new LBG polymers stable enough for processing using roll-to-roll methods.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Paper
    11. Communication
    12. Full Papers
    1. Energy Storage: Paper-Based Energy-Storage Devices Comprising Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polypyrrole-Cladophora Nanocellulose Composite Electrodes (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2012) (page 494)

      Aamir Razaq, Leif Nyholm, Martin Sjödin, Maria Strømme and Albert Mihranyan

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290021

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      L. Nyholm, M. Strømme, A. Mihranyan, and co-workers embed carbon filaments in a matrix of polypyrrole-covered cellulose nanofibers from the green algae Cladophora on page 445. The displayed paper-based energy-storage devices comprise the carbon filament-reinforced polypyrrole–Cladophora nano-cellulose composite as electrodes, and functions in a water-based electrolyte. Charge capacities of over 200 C g−1 can be obtained for such devices at potential scan rates as high as 500 mV s−1, compared to capacitances of 60–70 F g−1 for symmetric supercapacitor cells.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Paper
    11. Communication
    12. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2012)

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290022

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Paper
    11. Communication
    12. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2012) (pages 395–399)

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290017

  6. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Paper
    11. Communication
    12. Full Papers
    1. Kesterite Thin-Film Solar Cells: Advances in Materials Modelling of Cu2ZnSnS4 (pages 400–409)

      Aron Walsh, Shiyou Chen, Su-Huai Wei and Xin-Gao Gong

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100630

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      Semiconducting materials based on the kesterite mineral structure are the most promising next-generation light-absorbing compounds for thin-film solar cells. Progress in the understanding of the physicochemical properties of kesterites from first-principles calculations is reviewed.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Paper
    11. Communication
    12. Full Papers
    1. Nanosized Na4Fe(CN)6/C Composite as a Low-Cost and High-Rate Cathode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries (pages 410–414)

      Jianfeng Qian, Min Zhou, Yuliang Cao, Xinping Ai and Hanxi Yang

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100655

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A Na4Fe(CN)6/C nanocomposite prepared simply by ball-milling Na4Fe(CN)6 with carbon powder displays a full utilization of its one-electron redox capacity, excellent cyclability, and high rate capability as a Na-storage cathode, offering a promising possibility to develop environmentally benign and low-cost Na ion batteries for large-scale electric storage applications.

    2. New Low-Bandgap Materials with Good Stabilities and Efficiencies Comparable to P3HT in R2R-Coated Solar Cells (pages 415–418)

      Roar Søndergaard, Matthieu Manceau, Mikkel Jørgensen and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100517

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Roll-to-roll coated organic solar cells of two new polymers processed in ambient conditions show good photochemical stabilities, and their efficiencies are comparable to similar roll-to-roll coated P3HT cells. Optimal blend compositions are achieved by the use of differentially pumped slot die coatings. The final devices show good stabilities in an outdoor experiment carried out over 4 months.

    3. Template-Directed Synthesis of Pillared-Porous Carbon Nanosheet Architectures: High-Performance Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors (pages 419–424)

      Zhuangjun Fan, Yang Liu, Jun Yan, Guoqing Ning, Qian Wang, Tong Wei, Linjie Zhi and Fei Wei

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100654

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      3D pillared-porous carbon nanosheets with supporting carbon pillars between the carbon layers is prepared by the carbonization of pitch on porous MgO templates. This unique structure endows the high-rate transportation of electrolyte ions and electrons throughout the electrode matrix, resulting in excellent electrochemical performance.

    4. Boron Doping of Graphene for Graphene–Silicon p–n Junction Solar Cells (pages 425–429)

      Xiao Li, Lili Fan, Zhen Li, Kunlin Wang, Minlin Zhong, Jinquan Wei, Dehai Wu and Hongwei Zhu

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100671

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The modulation of the electrical properties of graphene is essential to realize graphene-based electronics. Boron-doped p-type graphene films with band gaps of ∼50 meV are prepared by chemical vapor deposition using ethanol and boron powder as the precursors. Under AM 1.5 illumination, the p–n junction solar cells made from boron-doped graphene films and n-type silicon show 3.4% conversion efficiency after nitric acid treatment.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Paper
    11. Communication
    12. Full Papers
    1. Carbonized Chicken Eggshell Membranes with 3D Architectures as High-Performance Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2012) (page 430)

      Zhi Li, Li Zhang, Babak Shalchi Amirkhiz, Xuehai Tan, Zhanwei Xu, Huanlei Wang, Brian C. Olsen, Chris M. B. Holt and David Mitlin

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290018

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Supercapacitors are a class of energy-storage device able to work at much higher current densities than batteries to meet surge energy requirements. On page 431, Z. Li, L. Zhang, and co-workers carbonize a daily waste, eggshell membrane, and use it as a high-performance supercapacitor. The 3D macroporous structure composed of interwoven carbon fibers facilitates fast electron and electrolyte transfer. The micropores and functionalities (N and O) on the fibers endow the carbonized membrane with a high capacitance of up to 297 F g−1.

  9. Full Paper

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Paper
    11. Communication
    12. Full Papers
    1. Carbonized Chicken Eggshell Membranes with 3D Architectures as High-Performance Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors (pages 431–437)

      Zhi Li, Li Zhang, Babak Shalchi Amirkhiz, Xuehai Tan, Zhanwei Xu, Huanlei Wang, Brian C. Olsen, Chris M. B. Holt and David Mitlin

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100548

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High-performance carbon materials for supercapacitors from eggshells: combining the long-range 3D macroporous structure of one of the most common daily household waste products with its high content of N and O, the carbonized eggshell membrane shows a high capacitance of 297 F g−1 and less than 3% capacitance fading after 10 000 operation cycles in 1 M KOH.

  10. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Paper
    11. Communication
    12. Full Papers
    1. High Energy Density Supercapacitor Based on a Hybrid Carbon Nanotube–Reduced Graphite Oxide Architecture (pages 438–444)

      Neetu Jha, Palanisamy Ramesh, Elena Bekyarova, Mikhail E. Itkis and Robert C. Haddon

      Article first published online: 17 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100697

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Supercapacitors comprised of hybrid carbon electrodes give high energy densities of 94 Wh kg−1 at room temperature. Such electrodes are prepared from reduced graphite oxide and purified single-walled carbon nanotubes by a simple casting technique to give a hybrid structure with optimum porosity and functionality.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Paper
    11. Communication
    12. Full Papers
    1. Paper-Based Energy-Storage Devices Comprising Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polypyrrole-Cladophora Nanocellulose Composite Electrodes (pages 445–454)

      Aamir Razaq, Leif Nyholm, Martin Sjödin, Maria Strømme and Albert Mihranyan

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100713

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Adding carbon filaments to composite electrodes containing polypyrrole and nanocellulose significantly improves the performance of supercapacitors based on these electrodes. The electrode charge capacity and cell capacitance are maintained at high potential scan rates and charging currents when carbon filaments are included to decrease the cell resistance. The results represent significant progress in the development of inexpensive, paper-based, environmentally friendly energy-storage devices.

    2. A Self-Doping, O2-Stable, n-Type Interfacial Layer for Organic Electronics (pages 455–460)

      Thomas H. Reilly III, Alexander W. Hains, Hsiang-Yu Chen and Brian A. Gregg

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100446

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A red dicationic perylene diimide film spontaneously turns blue upon dehydration, and its conductivity increases by five orders of magnitude. This transition is reversible and reproducible. Perylene diimide anions are formed by dehydration and the n-type doping level increases by ∼12 orders of magnitude. Employed as n-type interfacial layers (IFLs) in organic photovoltaic cells, these unoptimized films perform as well as the best current n-type IFLs.

    3. Effect of Elastic Network of Ceramic Fillers on Thermal Cycle Stability of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack (pages 461–468)

      Jong-Ho Lee, Hyoungchul Kim, Sung Moon Kim, Tae-Wook Noh, Hwa-Young Jung, Hyun-Yup Lim, Hun-Gi Jung, Ji-Won Son, Hae-Ryoung Kim, Byung-Kook Kim, Hae-June Je, Jae-Chun Lee, Huesup Song and Hae-Weon Lee

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100355

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      A hybrid composite sealing gasket in a tri-layered composite is developed to mimic an elastomer-based compressive seal. The tri-layered composite seal consists of a reinforced fiber layer sandwiched by two reinforced platelet layers. The distribution of the fillers, i.e., the platelets and fibers, is determined, and the seal is shown to undergo 100 thermal cycles with little degradation in performance.

    4. Enhanced Energy Storage in Nanocomposite Capacitors through Aligned PZT Nanowires by Uniaxial Strain Assembly (pages 469–476)

      Haixiong Tang, Yirong Lin and Henry A. Sodano

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100543

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanocomposites with aligned PZT nanowires are prepared by uniaxial strain assembly. It is demonstrated that the nanocomposites with nanowires aligned along the axis of the electric field have higher energy densities than samples with randomly dispersed nanowires. These results show that control of the orientation of the filler could be used to improve the energy density of nanocomposites.

    5. Interplay between Bimolecular Recombination and Carrier Transport Distances in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells (pages 477–486)

      John R. Tumbleston, Yingchi Liu, Edward T. Samulski and Rene Lopez

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100677

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The distance carriers are required to travel in the active layer prior to being extracted in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells plays a critical role in determining the extent of bimolecular recombination. This relationship is demonstrated using semi-transparent solar cells, which allow for discrimination between recombination caused by electrons or holes generated too far from their respective exit contacts.

    6. A New Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Using a Sulfuric/Chloric Mixed-Acid Supporting Electrolyte (pages 487–493)

      Wei Wang, Zimin Nie, Baowei Chen, Feng Chen, Qingtao Luo, Xiaoliang Wei, Guan-Guang Xia, Maria Skyllas-Kazacos, Liyu Li and Zhenguo Yang

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100527

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A redox flow battery using Fe2+/Fe3+ and V2+/V3+ redox couples in a chloric/sulfuric mixed-acid supporting electrolyte shows great potential for stationary energy storage applications. A 25% improvement in the discharge energy density is achieved compared with the previously reported Fe/V cell using pure chloride acid supporting electrolyte. Besides a wide operating temperature window, this new system demonstrates stable cycling performance when using a microporous separator, which greatly decreases the system cost.

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