Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 5

May, 2012

Volume 2, Issue 5

Pages 497–605

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Lithium Ion Batteries: Autonomic Shutdown of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Thermoresponsive Microspheres (Adv. Energy Mater. 5/2012) (page 497)

      Marta Baginska, Benjamin J. Blaiszik, Ryan J. Merriman, Nancy R. Sottos, Jeffrey S. Moore and Scott R. White

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290024

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Poly(ethylene) microspheres are prepared by S. R. White and co-workers via a solvent evaporation technique and used to demonstrate autonomic shutdown of a Lithiumion battery operating unsafely. These ca. 4 μm diameter microspheres can be coated directly onto an electrode surface, as shown on page 583. When the internal battery environment reaches a critical temperature (110 °C), the microspheres melt and form a conformal coating on the electrode surface, effectively halting Li-ion transport and permanently shutting down the battery cell.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Supercapacitors: Tailoring Electrode/Electrolyte Interfacial Properties in Flexible Supercapacitors by Applying Pressure (Adv. Energy Mater. 5/2012) (page 498)

      Charan Masarapu, Lian-Ping Wang, Xin Li and Bingqing Wei

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290025

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The image shows the effect of pressure on the capacitance of a flexible supercapacitor assembled with activated carbon fabric (ACF) electrodes. The schematic illustrates the macroscale experimental set-up and the microscale ion filling of the triangular-shaped ACF nanopores. The application of pressure pushes the ions into the pores, thus increasing the capacitance of the supercapacitor. In the background, a scanning electron microscope image shows the ACF under low magnification. B. Q. Wei and co-workers describe how they optimised this effect on page 546.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Hydrogen Storage: Catalytic Influence of Various Cerium Precursors on the Hydrogen Sorption Properties of NaAlH4 (Adv. Energy Mater. 5/2012) (page 606)

      Jianjiang Hu, Shuhua Ren, Raiker Witter and Maximilian Fichtner

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290026

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The hydrogen sorption kinetics of NaAlH4 can be enhanced with various cerium dopants. On page 560, J. J. Hu and co-workers achieve an immediate acceleration of hydrogen desorption upon formation of cerium aluminide. Reversible hydrogen storage using NaAlH4, with a capacity close to theoretical values, is realized by direct introduction of Ce powder followed by a heat treatment. Hydrogen capacity persists under the operating conditions of a High Temperature Fuel Cell, which is interesting for the energy conversion of hydrogen to electricity.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 5/2012)

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290027

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. The Development of Hydrazine-Processed Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Solar Cells (pages 504–522)

      Brion Bob, Bao Lei, Choong-Heui Chung, Wenbing Yang, Wan-Ching Hsu, Hsin-Sheng Duan, William Wei-Jen Hou, Sheng-Han Li and Yang Yang

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100578

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      Hydrazine-based semiconductor processing represents a powerful and versatile tool for the formation of many chalcogenides and related materials. The fundamentals of solution-phase CIGS film deposition and photovoltaic device fabrication are discussed in detail, with respect to both the basic science and engineering principles that govern the steady growth in performance of devices based on this processing method.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Polymer Solar Cells with a Low-Temperature-Annealed Sol–Gel-Derived MoOx Film as a Hole Extraction Layer (pages 523–527)

      Tingbin Yang, Ming Wang, Yan Cao, Fei Huang, Lin Huang, Junbiao Peng, Xiong Gong, Stephen Z. D. Cheng and Yong Cao

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100598

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) from polymer solar cells with a low-temperature-annealed sol–gel-derived molybdenum oxide (S-MoOx) thin film as a buffer layer demonstrate that the S-MoOx (i.e., solution-processed) thin film can serve as the hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells in the quest for high performance.

    2. Building on Soft Foundations: New Possibilities for Controlling Hybrid Photovoltaic Architectures (pages 528–531)

      Joseph B. Franklin, Jonathan M. Downing, Finn Giuliani, Mary P. Ryan and Martyn A. McLachlan

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100719

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      The deposition of highly crystalline ZnO onto P3HT using pulsed laser deposition at low temperature is discussed. To demonstrate the applicability of the technique the preparation of a conventional architecture hybrid photovoltaic device is outlined for the first time. No degradation of the microstructure, optical or electronic properties of the P3HT are observed. The methodology is widely applicable for depositing oxide interlayers and optical spacers in multilayer organic devices.

    3. Increasing the Fill Factor of Inverted P3HT:PCBM Solar Cells Through Surface Modification of Al-Doped ZnO via Phosphonic Acid-Anchored C60 SAMs (pages 532–535)

      Tobias Stubhan, Michael Salinas, Alexander Ebel, Frederick C. Krebs, Andreas Hirsch, Marcus Halik and Christoph J. Brabec

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100668

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      The influence of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) electron extraction layers modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on inverted polymer solar cells is investigated. It is found that AZO modification with phosphonic acid-anchored Fullerene–SAMs leads to a reduction of the series resistance, while increasing the parallel resistance. This results in an increased efficiency from 2.9 to 3.3%.

    4. p-Doped Multiwall Carbon Nanotube/Perylene Diimide Derivative Photoelectrochemical Cells for Photocurrent Generation (pages 536–540)

      Anna Troeger, Marc Ledendecker, Johannes T. Margraf, Vito Sgobba, Dirk M. Guldi, Benito F. Vieweg, Erdmann Spiecker, Sabin-Lucian Suraru and Frank Würthner

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100710

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      A perylene diimide (PDI) derivative bearing four chlorine substituents in the bay area is deposited together with pristine multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and/or Nafion p-doped MWNTs (p-MWNTs) onto indium tin oxide (ITO) solid substrates by means of air-brushing. The resulting photoanodes are studied in photoelectrochemical cells and reveal highest photocurrent efficiencies when PDI and p-MWNT are combined as photoactive materials, indicating the beneficial effect of Nafion.

    5. Toward High-Stability Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with an Electrodeposited ZnO Electron Transporting Layer (pages 541–545)

      Sylvia Sanchez, Solenn Berson, Stéphane Guillerez, Claude Lévy-Clément and Valentina Ivanova

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100632

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Inverted polymeric photovoltaic devices based on an electrodeposited ZnO electron-extracting layer are fabricated on both glass and plastic substrates. They show high efficiency and remarkably good operating stability (see figure). It is found that for devices with the same power conversion efficiency (PCE) a thicker film is required on a glass substrate than on a plastic substrate.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Tailoring Electrode/Electrolyte Interfacial Properties in Flexible Supercapacitors by Applying Pressure (pages 546–552)

      Charan Masarapu, Lian-Ping Wang, Xin Li and Bingqing Wei

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100529

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electrode/electrolyte interfacial properties of flexible supercapacitors assembled with nanostructured activated carbon fabric (ACF) electrodes can be tailored by applying a pressure and tuning electrolyte ion size relative to electrode pore size. The ratio of solvated ion size in the electrolyte to the pore size on the electrodes determines the minimum pressure necessary to achieve optimum performance.

    2. Electrospun LiFe1−yMnyPO4/C Nanofiber Composites as Self-Supporting Cathodes in Li-Ion Batteries (pages 553–559)

      Robin von Hagen, Henning Lorrmann, Kai-Christian Möller and Sanjay Mathur

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100534

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Self-supporting electrodes of electrospun LiFe1−yMnyPO4/C nanofibers are presented as cathodes for Li-ion batteries. The dependence of the electrochemical properties on the phase composition of the solid–solution (Fe/Mn ratio) are characterized. The nanofiber meshes provide a porous high surface area and display a 1D–2D architecture, which shows high rate capabilities up to 8C with a capacity retention of nearly 50%.

    3. Catalytic Influence of Various Cerium Precursors on the Hydrogen Sorption Properties of NaAlH4 (pages 560–568)

      Jianjiang Hu, Shuhua Ren, Raiker Witter and Maximilian Fichtner

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100724

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ce-catalyzed NaAlH4 can be recharged in approximately 10 min when used as a hydrogen storage material, approaching the requirement for refueling of light duty vehicles. With its stable cyclability outstanding from other hydrogen storage materials, this material is attractive for mobile applications.

    4. Incorporation of Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticles in PEMFC Electrodes (pages 569–574)

      André Wolz, Susanne Zils, David Ruch, Nicholas Kotov, Christina Roth and Marc Michel

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100711

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Oxide support materials decorated with Pt nanoparticles are embedded in a carbon nanotube network by a multilayer preparation technique. The corrosion-stable support in combination with the porous structure offered by the CNTs leads to a high Pt utilization and a good electrochemical performance. Further optimization of the structure could result in stable, cost efficient, and easy to prepare electrodes.

    5. Efficient Phthalimide Copolymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: How the Processing Additive Influences Nanoscale Morphology and Photovoltaic Properties (pages 575–582)

      Hao Xin, Xugang Guo, Guoqiang Ren, Mark D. Watson and Samson A. Jenekhe

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100718

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The role of the processiing additive in achieving optimal interconnected two-phase nanomorphology and 10-fold enhancement in the efficiency of p-type copolymer (PhBTEH)/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells is found to be the inhibition of fullerene intercalation into the polymer side chains and regulation of the relative crystallization/aggregation rates of the polymer and fullerene.

    6. Autonomic Shutdown of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Thermoresponsive Microspheres (pages 583–590)

      Marta Baginska, Benjamin J. Blaiszik, Ryan J. Merriman, Nancy R. Sottos, Jeffrey S. Moore and Scott R. White

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100683

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Autonomic shutdown of lithium-ion coin cell batteries is achieved through the incorporation of ca. 4 μm thermoresponsive microspheres onto the battery anode/separator. When the internal battery environment reaches a critical temperature, the microspheres melt and coat the anode/separator with a nonconductive barrier, halting Li-ion transport and shutting down the cell permanently. Complete cell shutdown (>98% loss of initial cell capacity) is achieved in cells with poly(ethylene) microsphere coverage greater than 7.4 mg cm−2.

    7. Charge Formation in Pentacene Layers During Solar-Cell Fabrication: Direct Observation by Electron Spin Resonance (pages 591–597)

      Kazuhiro Marumoto, Takuya Fujimori, Masaaki Ito and Tatsuo Mori

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100774

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new microscopic characterization of organic thin-film solar cells with electron spin resonance (ESR) is developed. The experimental set-up allows the simultaneous recording of the ESR signal and the device performance. Analysis of the data reveals that holes are formed in the pentacene layer of these types of solar cells during deposition of the pentacene layer. The results suggest that careful preparation methods are needed to improve the device performance and lifetime.

    8. Relationship Between Structural Properties and Electrochemical Characteristics of Monolithic Carbon Xerogel-Based Electrochemical Double-Layer Electrodes in Aqueous and Organic Electrolytes (pages 598–605)

      Mario Zeller, Volker Lorrmann, Gudrun Reichenauer, Matthias Wiener and Jens Pflaum

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100513

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Carbon xerogels used as electrochemical double-layer capacitor electrodes show different electrochemical behavior depending on their structural parameters and the surrounding electrolyte. The charging rate of all electrodes benefits from increasing pore and particle diameter. For organic electrolytes, only interparticular pores significantly contribute to the total capacitance whereas, for sulfuric acid, micropores also contribute to charge storage.

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