Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 6

June, 2012

Volume 2, Issue 6

Pages 609–698

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. TiO2 Photoanodes: Triblock-Terpolymer-Directed Self-Assembly of Mesoporous TiO2: High-Performance Photoanodes for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2012) (page 609)

      Pablo Docampo, Morgan Stefik, Stefan Guldin, Robert Gunning, Nataliya A. Yufa, Ning Cai, Peng Wang, Ullrich Steiner, Ulrich Wiesner and Henry J. Snaith

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290030

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      H. J. Snaith and co-workers synthesise mesoporous, fully interconnected, TiO2 photoanode films for use in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells using a new triblock terpolymer-directed self-assembly platform. Such devices as described on page 676 have a high availability of narrow and low-lying sub-bandgap states, which maximises photoinduced charge generation within the material and allows these devices to show solar-energy power conversion efficiencies of over 5%.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Lithium-Ion Batteries: Excellent Cycle Life of Lithium-Metal Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine-Coated Separators (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2012) (page 610)

      Myung-Hyun Ryou, Dong Jin Lee, Je-Nam Lee, Yong Min Lee, Jung-Ki Park and Jang Wook Choi

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290031

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      Mussels provide a clever idea for extending the lifetime of lithium ion batteries! J.-K. Park, J. W. Choi, and co-workers were inspired by mussels, which show exceptionally strong adhesion on wet surfaces even under fierce wave action. On page 645, they coat polydopamine onto battery separators, and discover that this coating improves the wettability of the separators and facilitates the adhesion between the separators and electrodes, both of which enable a record-breaking cycle life of Li metal anodes.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Mesoporous Carbon: Li4Ti5O12 Nanoparticles Embedded in a Mesoporous Carbon Matrix as a Superior Anode Material for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2012) (page 699)

      Laifa Shen, Xiaogang Zhang, Evan Uchaker, Changzhou Yuan and Guozhong Cao

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290032

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      A mesoporous Li4Ti5O12/C nanocomposite consisting of nanocrystals confined in a micrometer-sized porous carbon foam is successfully fabricated using a nanocasting technique described on page 691 by X. G. Zhang, G. Z. Cao, and coworkers. This mesoporous Li4Ti5O12/C nanocomposite delivers an exceptionally high rate capacity and excellent cycling performance in comparison to bulk Li4Ti5O12. This important finding shows that ‘meso-nano’ composites are clearly useful candidates for energy storage, enabling a new class of lithiumion batteries for large-scale applications.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2012)

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290033

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2012) (pages 611–615)

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290028

  6. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Minimizing Energy Losses in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Coordination Compounds as Alternative Redox Mediators Coupled with Appropriate Organic Dyes (pages 616–627)

      Thomas Stergiopoulos and Polycarpos Falaras

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100781

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      This progress report focuses on the energy losses concerning dye regeneration by the iodide/triiodide redox couple in dye-sensitized solar cells. These losses are mainly responsible for the decrease of photopotential and can be minimized using alternative innovative redox active mediators such as the ferrocene/ferrocenium, Cu+/2+, and Co2+/3+ complexes in combination with appropriate organic dyes.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. High-Efficiency Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell on a Periodic Nanocone Back Reflector (pages 628–633)

      Ching-Mei Hsu, Corsin Battaglia, Celine Pahud, Zhichao Ruan, Franz-Josef Haug, Shanhui Fan, Christophe Ballif and Yi Cui

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100514

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      An amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector with a high 9.7% initial conversion efficiency is presented. The optimized back-reflector morphology provides powerful light trapping and enables excellent electrical cell performance. Up-scaling to industrial production of large-area modules should be possible using nanoimprint lithography.

    2. Tellurium-Free Thermoelectric: The Anisotropic n-Type Semiconductor Bi2S3 (pages 634–638)

      Kanishka Biswas, Li-Dong Zhao and Mercouri G. Kanatzidis

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100775

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      Well-oriented crystals of n-type bulk Bi2S3 and Bi2S3-xSex doped with BiCl3 show excellent anisotropic thermoelectric properties. BiCl3 doping in Bi2S3 leads to significant increase in the electrical conductivity, which results to a promising thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, of ≈0.6 at 760 K.

    3. Sandwich-like Singled-Walled Titania Nanotube as a Novel Semiconductor Electrode for Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 639–644)

      Cunku Dong, Xin Li, Xiujuan Fan and Jingyao Qi

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100763

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      A novel sandwich-like singled-walled titania nanotube is designed as a photoanode in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. It acts as a hollow coaxial nanocable, in which the injected electron is confined in the conducting layer for transport, guarded from electron recombination by the protective layers. An ultrafast interfacial electron transfer is also expected in this photoelectric system due to the unique nanoarchitecture.

    4. Excellent Cycle Life of Lithium-Metal Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine-Coated Separators (pages 645–650)

      Myung-Hyun Ryou, Dong Jin Lee, Je-Nam Lee, Yong Min Lee, Jung-Ki Park and Jang Wook Choi

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100687

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An excellent cycle life (150 cycles with 80% retention) for lithium-metal anodes in lithium-ion batteries is achieved by employing mussel-inspired polydopamine-treated-polyethylene separators. This originates from the polydopamine coating, which enables a uniform ionic flux, as well as mussel-inspired catecholic adhesion of the separators onto the lithium surfaces. Additionally, the polydopamine coating improves the thermal-shrinkage properties of polyethylene separators.

    5. Nanostructured Platinum Catalysts by Atomic-Layer Deposition for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (pages 651–654)

      Cheng-Chieh Chao, Munekazu Motoyama and Fritz B. Prinz

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200002

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      Atomic-layer deposition (ALD) and sputtering of platinum are used to create catalyst nanostructures with high triple-phase-boundary (TPB) densities and a low current-collecting resistance for solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). A 90% increase in the fuel-cell peak power density is observed relative to catalyst structures that are deposited using sputtering only.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Nanoscale Compositionally Graded Thin-Film Electrolyte Membranes for Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2012) (page 655)

      Kian Kerman, Bo-Kuai Lai and Shriram Ramanathan

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290029

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      Lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is essential for realizing their potential in the stationary and portable energy space. Synthesis of SOFCs using thin-film electrolytes enables high-performance devices at reduced temperatures and unique processing capabilities. A nanoscale compositionally graded electrolyte developed by K. Kerman et al. on page 656 using a co-sputtering fabrication method provides selective interfacial functionality and synergistically combines the advantages of multiple materials. An atomistic model of such a structure is shown in the image.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Report
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Nanoscale Compositionally Graded Thin-Film Electrolyte Membranes for Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (pages 656–661)

      Kian Kerman, Bo-Kuai Lai and Shriram Ramanathan

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100751

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Compositionally graded thin film oxide electrolytes are synthesized by co-sputtering for use in low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The synthetic method is broadly relevant for the fabrication of nanoscale functionally graded materials with selective interfacial functionality for energy conversion. The high power densities in H2 and methane fuels are demonstrated and interfacial features are discussed.

    2. Extracting Microscopic Device Parameters from Transient Photocurrent Measurements of P3HT:PCBM Solar Cells (pages 662–669)

      Roderick C. I. MacKenzie, Christopher G. Shuttle, Michael L. Chabinyc and Jenny Nelson

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100709

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Trap-limited recombination is included in a time-domain drift-diffusion model of a P3HT:PCBM solar cell. The model can self-consistently reproduce steady-state and transient electrical data. The model is used to extract the LUMO and HOMO density of trap states from the device, and deep trap levels are observed which are tentatively attributed to the molecular packing of the molecules.

    3. High Thermoelectric Figure of Merit in PbTe Alloys Demonstrated in PbTe–CdTe (pages 670–675)

      Yanzhong Pei, Aaron D. LaLonde, Nicholas A. Heinz and G. Jeffrey Snyder

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100770

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      Temperature-dependent solubility of CdTe is utilized to vary the microstructure between a thermoelectric nanocomposite and an alloy, enabling a demonstration that alloying concurrently leads to beneficial changes to the band structure and effective phonon scattering for high-performance thermoelectrics. This work also indicates an upper limit of the average distance between interfaces for effective phonon scattering in nanocomposites.

    4. Triblock-Terpolymer-Directed Self-Assembly of Mesoporous TiO2: High-Performance Photoanodes for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 676–682)

      Pablo Docampo, Morgan Stefik, Stefan Guldin, Robert Gunning, Nataliya A. Yufa, Ning Cai, Peng Wang, Ullrich Steiner, Ulrich Wiesner and Henry J. Snaith

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100699

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new self-assembly platform for the synthesis of mesoporous, fully interconnected TiO2 films, based on a triblock terpolymer, is presented. The assembled photoanodes have strong advantages over the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based photoanodes employed in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices fabricated through this route exhibit solar power conversion efficiencies of over 5%.

    5. Multi-Length-Scale Morphologies in PCPDTBT/PCBM Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells (pages 683–690)

      Yu Gu, Cheng Wang and Thomas P. Russell

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100726

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The device performance of PCPDTBT/PCBM bulk-heterojunction solar cells is enhanced with the use of additives. The additive promotes the formation of PCPDTBT fibrils due to its higher vapor pressure and selective solubility for PCBM. A phase-separated, multiscale morphology is produced, comprising domains of pure, crystalline PCPDTBT fibrils, and another domain of PCBM-rich mixture with noncrystalline PCPDTBT aggregations.

    6. Li4Ti5O12 Nanoparticles Embedded in a Mesoporous Carbon Matrix as a Superior Anode Material for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries (pages 691–698)

      Laifa Shen, Xiaogang Zhang, Evan Uchaker, Changzhou Yuan and Guozhong Cao

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100720

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A mesoporous Li4Ti5O12/C nanocomposite is fabricated by a nanocasting technique using the conductive porous carbon material CMK-3 as template. The combination of the interpenetrating conductive carbon network, abundant mesoporous structure, and small nanocrystalline Li4Ti5O12 results in a mesoporous Li4Ti5O12/C nanocomposite exhibiting an excellent rate capability (73.4 mA h g−1 at 80 C) and significantly enhanced cycling performance (5.6% capacity loss after 1000 cycles at a high rate of 20 C).

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