Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 7

Special Issue: Battery Materials

July, 2012

Volume 2, Issue 7

Pages 701–910

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Reviews
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Non-Precious Catalysts: Recent Progress in Non-Precious Catalysts for Metal-Air Batteries (Adv. Energy Mater. 7/2012) (page 701)

      Ruiguo Cao, Jang-Soo Lee, Meilin Liu and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290036

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      Non-precious catalysts for oxygen reduction reactions in the air electrode play a vital role in reducing polarization during cycling and therefore enhancing the performance of metal-air batteries which, among electrochemical energy-storage devices, have the potential to offer the highest energy density, representing the most promising systems for portable (electronics), mobile (electrical vehicles), and stationary (micro-grids) applications. Recent advancements in non-precious catalysts for Li-air and Zn-air batteries are highlighted on page 816 by M. Liu, J. Cho, and co-workers.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Reviews
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Organic Electrodes: Organic Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (Adv. Energy Mater. 7/2012) (page 702)

      Yanliang Liang, Zhanliang Tao and Jun Chen

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290037

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      Organic electrode materials offer highly engineerable choices for the construction of potentially sustainable and cost-effective rechargeable lithium batteries, which are currently dominated by inorganic intercalation compounds. On page 742, J. Chen and co-workers present an exhaustive overview of thirty-years' research efforts in the field, with emphasis on the working principles, development histories, and established design strategies. With comprehensive analysis and performance comparisons, this review provides a guide to this emerging research area.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
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    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
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    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Electrochemical Flow Cells: The Electrochemical Flow Capacitor: A New Concept for Rapid Energy Storage and Recovery (Adv. Energy Mater. 7/2012) (page 911)

      Volker Presser, Christopher R. Dennison, Jonathan Campos, Kevin W. Knehr, Emin C. Kumbur and Yury Gogotsi

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290038

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      The electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) described by E. C. Kumbur, Y. Gogotsi, and co-workers utilizes a flowable slurry of capacitive carbon particles in an aqueous or organic electrolyte. The proposed concept combines the scalability of flow batteries with the high power density and long lifetime of electrochemical capacitors. EFC technology also decouples energy and power ratings, which is important for storage and use of energy from highly fluctuating sources. The proof-of-concept study on page 895 presents promising initial performance data and discusses further development steps for this technology. Flow cell design by the Materials Research Center (Ukraine) and cover design by Kristy Jost (USA).

  4. Masthead

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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Reviews
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 7/2012)

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290039

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Reviews
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Adv. Energy Mater. 7/2012) (pages 703–708)

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290034

  6. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Reviews
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
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  7. Reviews

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Reviews
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries: Potential Alternatives to Current Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 710–721)

      Sung-Wook Kim, Dong-Hwa Seo, Xiaohua Ma, Gerbrand Ceder and Kisuk Kang

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200026

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      Electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) are briefly introduced. The cost-effective NIB is believed to be a potential alternative for the current lithium-ion battery (LIB) in large-scale applications. Current NIB technology is not suitable to replace LIB, however, there may be undiscovered possibilities in sodium chemistry which promise excellent performance, opening new a NIB generation.

    2. In Situ TEM Experiments of Electrochemical Lithiation and Delithiation of Individual Nanostructures (pages 722–741)

      Xiao Hua Liu, Yang Liu, Akihiro Kushima, Sulin Zhang, Ting Zhu, Ju Li and Jian Yu Huang

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200024

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      In situ TEM electrochemistry uses a “nanobattery” approach to probe the mechanisms of electrochemical reaction and material degradation on the individual nanostructure level in lithium ion batteries. This review summarizes recent progress in the in situ TEM electrochemical tests of various anode materials, showing material-specific properties and consistency between the in situ and ex situ studies.

    3. Organic Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (pages 742–769)

      Yanliang Liang, Zhanliang Tao and Jun Chen

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100795

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      Lithium storage with organics has been overlooked in the development of rechargeable lithium batteries. Organic electrode materials offer new possibilities that are not readily available for conventional intercalation compounds. Herein three decades' research efforts on organic electrodes are reviewed, providing a comprehensive overview and analysis of the field.

    4. Li-Redox Flow Batteries Based on Hybrid Electrolytes: At the Cross Road between Li-ion and Redox Flow Batteries (pages 770–779)

      Yarong Wang, Ping He and Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200100

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      Moving beyond the conventional Li-ion and redox-flow batteries (RFBs), the Li-redox flow battery stands out as the one able to combine the existing knowledge of Li-ion batteries with the advantage of RFBs. It goes further, functioning as a fuel cell via “chemical charging”. The facile switching between these functions renders the battery a promising way forward for energy conversion technology.

    5. Lithium-Air Batteries: Survey on the Current Status and Perspectives Towards Automotive Applications from a Battery Industry Standpoint (pages 780–800)

      Myounggu Park, Heeyoung Sun, Hyungbok Lee, Junesoo Lee and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200020

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      A comprehensive survey from a battery industry standpoint has been conducted on the fundamentals of chemistry, utilized Li-air cell configurations (or types) vs. performance, and major components comprising Li-air batteries using various sources of previously published peer-reviewed journal papers, book chapters, patents, and industrial reports. The survey results are presented in this article.

  8. Progress Reports

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    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Reviews
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Non-Aqueous and Hybrid Li-O2 Batteries (pages 801–815)

      Robert Black, Brian Adams and L. F. Nazar

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200001

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      Advancing the lithium-air battery: Li-O2 batteries are the subject of rapidly increasing focus despite being in their infancy of development, owing to their very high theoretical energy densities. This progress report provides an overview of developments in the last few years in nonaqueous and “hybrid” (aqueous/nonaqueous) systems, with the aim of providing a better understanding of the underlying chemistry.

    2. Recent Progress in Non-Precious Catalysts for Metal-Air Batteries (pages 816–829)

      Ruiguo Cao, Jang-Soo Lee, Meilin Liu and Jaephil Cho

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200013

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      Non-precious catalysts for oxygen reduction reactions in the air electrode play a vital role in reducing polarization during cycling and enhancing the performance of metal-air batteries. Recent developments in non-precious catalysts for Li-air and Zn-air batteries are highlighted.

    3. Recent Progress in Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 830–840)

      Yonggang Wang, Jin Yi and Yongyao Xia

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200065

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      The aqueous lithium-ion battery has been demonstrated to be one of the most promising stationary power sources for sustainable energy sources such as wind and solar power. The present work reviews the latest advances in the exploration and development of battery systems and relative materials. Also the main approaches, achievements and challenges in this field are briefly commented on and discussed.

    4. High-Voltage Pyrophosphate Cathodes (pages 841–859)

      Prabeer Barpanda, Shin-ichi Nishimura and Atsuo Yamada

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100772

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      Polyanionic compounds form an ever-expanding group of cathode materials for rechargeable batteries. Alkali metal “pyrophosphates” form a distinct group of cathode materials, having a rich variation in constituting crystal structure and thus delivering the widest range of redox potential (about 2.0–4.9 V). Various pyrophosphates compounds with potential interest to battery community are summarized in this article.

    5. The Current Move of Lithium Ion Batteries Towards the Next Phase (pages 860–872)

      Tae-Hee Kim, Jeong-Seok Park, Sung Kyun Chang, Seungdon Choi, Ji Heon Ryu and Hyun-Kon Song

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200028

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      The next move of lithium ion batteries (LIBs): Application targets of LIBs are moving from small-sized mobile devices to large-sized electric vehicles (xEVs) and energy storage systems (ESSs). Each application has its own specifications so that electrode materials should be chosen to meet requirements of the corresponding application. This report analyzes current market trends and provides an an overview of LIB material candidates for xEVs and ESSs.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Reviews
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Hollow Carbon Nanospheres with Superior Rate Capability for Sodium-Based Batteries (pages 873–877)

      Kun Tang, Lijun Fu, Robin J. White, Linghui Yu, Maria-Magdalena Titirici, Markus Antonietti and Joachim Maier

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100691

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      Hollow carbon nanospheres are synthesized via the hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of nanosized latexes templates. The resulting disordered carbon hollow nanospheres exhibits excellent characteristics in terms of reversible capacities, cycling performance, and rate capability for application as an anode material in Na-based batteries.

    2. High-Performance Macroporous Bulk Silicon Anodes Synthesized by Template-Free Chemical Etching (pages 878–883)

      Byoung Man Bang, Jung-In Lee, Hyunjung Kim, Jaephil Cho and Soojin Park

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100765

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      Three-dimensional porous silicon particles can be produced via the combination of a galvanic displacement reaction and a metal-assisted chemical etching process. This simple synthetic route can be applied to make high-performance anode materials, including high specific capacity, stable cycling retention, and high rate capability, in lithium-ion batteries.

    3. Facile Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene via Pyrolysis of Graphene Oxide and Urea, and its Electrocatalytic Activity toward the Oxygen-Reduction Reaction (pages 884–888)

      Ziyin Lin, Gordon Waller, Yan Liu, Meilin Liu and Ching-Ping Wong

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200038

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      Nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) is a promising metal-free catalyst for the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR). A facile and low-cost synthesis of NG via the pyrolysis of graphene oxide and urea is reported. The N content in NG can be up to 7.86%, with a high percentage of graphitic N (≈24%), which gives rise to an excellent catalytic activity toward the ORR.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Reviews
    9. Progress Reports
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Electrochemical Performance of Solid-State Lithium–Air Batteries Using Carbon Nanotube Catalyst in the Air Electrode (pages 889–894)

      Hirokazu Kitaura and Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100789

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      High-safety lithium–air batteries are developed by replacing the liquid electrolytes with solid-state electrolytes. The solid-state lithium–air cells, using an air electrode composed of ceramic electrolyte as the lithium-ion conduction path and carbon nanotubes as both the electron conduction path and the catalyst, are successful in discharging and charging with relatively high capacities compared with lithium-ion batteries.

    2. The Electrochemical Flow Capacitor: A New Concept for Rapid Energy Storage and Recovery (pages 895–902)

      Volker Presser, Christopher R. Dennison, Jonathan Campos, Kevin W. Knehr, Emin C. Kumbur and Yury Gogotsi

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100768

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      The electrochemical flow capacitor is a novel technology which combines the rapid energy storage of supercapacitors with the scalable energy capacity of flow batteries. A flowable carbon slurry is employed, which is a mixture of carbon beads with high internal surface area, and different electrolytes (aqueous and non-aqueous). A first proof-of-concept study is presented in static and intermittent flow modes.

    3. Oxide Catalysts for Rechargeable High-Capacity Li–O2 Batteries (pages 903–910)

      Si Hyoung Oh and Linda F. Nazar

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200018

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      Nanocrystalline pyrochlore oxides serve as good electrocatalysts for the Li–O2 cell, producing rechargeable capacities up to 1100 mAh g−1 of the total cathode mass (including carbon, catalyst, binder and O2). Performance is improved by either depositing gold nanoparticles onto the pyrochlore to improve the oxygen-reduction properties, or by directly crystallizing 10 nm pyrochlore particles onto a carbon support to form a 5 wt% oxide/composite cathode, which improves the mass activity and affords efficient oxygen reduction.

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