Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 8

August, 2012

Volume 2, Issue 8

Pages 913–1032

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Polymer Solar Cells: High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Based on Poly(3-pentylthiophene) with Indene-C70 Bisadduct as an Acceptor (Adv. Energy Mater. 8/2012) (page 913)

      Yeping Sun, Chaohua Cui, Haiqiao Wang and Yongfang Li

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290041

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      The photovoltaic properties of poly(3-pentylthi-ophene) donors are studied by Y. F. Li and co-workers on page 966 by fabricating polymer solar cells (PSCs) with PCBM, IC60BA or IC70BA as the acceptor. The P3PT-based PSCs with IC60BA and IC70BA demon-strate higher power-conversion efficiencies of 4.50% and 5.44% with high open-circuit voltages of 0.89 and 0.88 V, respectively, compared with PCBM, benefiting from their higher-lying LUMO energy levels.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Stretchable Polymer–Carbon Nanotube Composite Electrode for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries: Porosity Engineering by Controlled Phase Separation (Adv. Energy Mater. 8/2012) (page 914)

      Hojun Lee, Jung-Keun Yoo, Jong-Hyun Park, Jin Ho Kim, Kisuk Kang and Yeon Sik Jung

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290042

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      The realization of bendable and stretchable electronic systems requires the development of practical flexible energy-storage devices. On page 976, Y. S. Jung, K. Kang, and co-workers report the fabrication of highly porous and stretchable polymer-carbon nanotube composites for the application for flexible lithium-ion batteries. Because the electrolytes cannot effectively penetrate into the polydimethylsiloxane-based nano-composites, interconnected pores are artificially formed by inducing controlled phase separation. The optimization of the pore size and the volume fraction increases the capacity by nearly seven-fold compared to a nonporous nanocomposite.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 8/2012)

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290043

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Adv. Energy Mater. 8/2012) (pages 915–920)

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201290040

  5. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      The Sky is the Limit (page 921)

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200523

  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Higher, Stronger, Better… A Review of 5 Volt Cathode Materials for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 922–939)

      Alexander Kraytsberg and Yair Ein-Eli

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200068

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      Developing stable 5 V cathode materials with higher specific energy (>50%) is a particular challenge in improving the performance of Li-ion batteries. The ever-increasing demand for portable consumer electronics and the search for batteries for electric vehicles, require continuous technological efforts for an efficient, higher energy-density material and, specifically, the development of advanced 5 V cathode materials.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Nanomechanical Quantification of Elastic, Plastic, and Fracture Properties of LiCoO2 (pages 940–944)

      Meng Qu, William H. Woodford, John M. Maloney, W. Craig Carter, Yet-Ming Chiang and Krystyn J. Van Vliet

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200107

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      Young's elastic modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness (KIc) of individual grains are reported for polycrystalline LiCoO2, a metal oxide cathode used in lithium-ion batteries, as measured via instrumented nanoindentation (indentations within circled locations; dashed line indicates grain boundary). The wide range of KIc does not correlate strongly with grain orientation.

    2. Efficient Inverted Tandem Polymer Solar Cells with a Solution-Processed Recombination Layer (pages 945–949)

      Sandra Kouijzer, Serkan Esiner, Corné H. Frijters, Mathieu Turbiez, Martijn M. Wienk and René A. J. Janssen

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100773

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      Solution-processed tandem polymer solar cells with an inverted polarity configuration provide a power conversion efficiency of 5.8%. The tandem cells use an almost loss-free recombination layer and two photoactive layers, with wide and small bandgaps, to increase the power conversion efficiency beyond that of the corresponding single-layer cells.

    3. Core–Shell Structure of Polypyrrole Grown on V2O5 Nanoribbon as High Performance Anode Material for Supercapacitors (pages 950–955)

      Qunting Qu, Yusong Zhu, Xiangwen Gao and Yuping Wu

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200088

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      A core–shell structure of polypyrrole grown on V2O5 nanoribbons as a high performance anode material for supercapacitors is fabricated using anionic dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) as surfactant. Benefiting from the nanoribbon morphology of V2O5, the improved charge-transfer and polymeric coating effect of PPy, PPy@V2O5 nanocomposites exhibits high energy density, and excellent cycling and rate capability in K2SO4 aqueous electrolyte.

    4. Quantifying Loss Mechanisms in Polymer:Fullerene Photovoltaic Devices (pages 956–961)

      Feng Gao, Jianpu Wang, James C. Blakesley, Inchan Hwang, Zhe Li and Neil C. Greenham

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200073

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      Drift-diffusion modeling is used to quantify different loss mechanisms in polymer:fullerene photovoltaic devices. Based on the modeling, which takes into account the carrier-density dependence of the mobility, the relative importance of geminate recombination, bimolecular recombination, and the space-charge effect are able to be quantified under different conditions.

    5. Disodium Terephthalate (Na2C8H4O4) as High Performance Anode Material for Low-Cost Room-Temperature Sodium-Ion Battery (pages 962–965)

      Liang Zhao, Junmei Zhao, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li, Zhibin Zhou, Michel Armand and Liquan Chen

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200166

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      In this contribution, a cheap organic material, disodium terephthalate, Na2C8H4O4, has been firstly evaluated as a novel anode for room-temperature Na-ion batteries. The material exhibits a high reversible capacity of 250 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. The average Na storage voltage is approximately 0.43 V vs. Na+/Na. A thin layer of Al2O3 coating on the electrode surface derived from the atomic layer deposition technique is effective in further enhancing Na storage performance.

    6. High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Based on Poly(3-pentylthiophene) with Indene-C70 Bisadduct as an Acceptor (pages 966–969)

      Yeping Sun, Chaohua Cui, Haiqiao Wang and Yongfang Li

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100733

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The photovoltaic properties of poly(3-pentylthiophene) (P3PT) are studied. P3PT-based polymer solar cells with IC60BA and IC70BA as acceptors demonstrate high power conversion efficiencies of 4.50% and 5.44% with high open-circuit voltages of 0.89 and 0.88 V, respectively. These devices benefit from the high-lying LUMO energy levels of IC60BA and IC70BA.

    7. Highly Ordered Mesoporous MoS2 with Expanded Spacing of the (002) Crystal Plane for Ultrafast Lithium Ion Storage (pages 970–975)

      Hao Liu, Dawei Su, Ruifeng Zhou, Bing Sun, Guoxiu Wang and Shi Zhang Qiao

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200087

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      Highly ordered mesoporous MoS2 with a high surface area and narrow pore-size distribution is synthesized by a vacuum assisted impregnation route. The mesoporous MoS2 demonstrates an expanded d002 spacing of 0.66 nm. The mesoporous MoS2 electrode achieves an excellent high rate capacity of 608 mAh g−1 at the discharge current of 10 A g−1 (∼15C), which places MoS2 as a viable next generation high power source for electric vehicles.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. A Stretchable Polymer–Carbon Nanotube Composite Electrode for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries: Porosity Engineering by Controlled Phase Separation (pages 976–982)

      Hojun Lee, Jung-Keun Yoo, Jong-Hyun Park, Jin Ho Kim, Kisuk Kang and Yeon Sik Jung

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100725

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly porous and stretchable polymer–carbon nanotube composites are fabricated for application in flexible lithium-ion batteries. Because the electrolytes cannot effectively penetrate into the polydimethylsiloxane-based nanocomposites, interconnected pores are artificially formed by inducing controlled phase separation. The optimization of the pore size and the volume fraction provides higher capacity by nearly seven-fold compared to a nonporous nanocomposite.

    2. Voltage-Induced Formation of Accumulation Layers at Electrode Interfaces in Organic Solar Cells (pages 983–991)

      Felix F. Stelzl, Jan Schulz-Gericke, Ed Crossland, Sabine Ludwigs and Uli Würfel

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100569

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      The influence of an applied voltage during the formation of the photoactive blend layer (P3HT:PCBM) is studied using organic solar cells in a nanoelectrode setup. A strong correlation between the performance of the final device and the magnitude and polarity of the applied voltage is observed. A voltage induced formation of accumulation layers is suggested to explain these findings.

    3. Confined and Chemically Flexible Grain Boundaries in Polycrystalline Compound Semiconductors (pages 992–998)

      Daniel Abou-Ras, Sebastian S. Schmidt, Raquel Caballero, Thomas Unold, Hans-Werner Schock, Christoph T. Koch, Bernhard Schaffer, Miroslava Schaffer, Pyuck-Pa Choi and Oana Cojocaru-Mirédin

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100764

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      Grain boundaries in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells are confined to only about 1 nm in width and are chemically flexible. Measurements by electron energy-loss spectroscopy, electron holography for potential profiling, and by atom-probe tomography consistently show indications of atomic redistribution within the atomic planes closest to the grain boundary core.

    4. Influence of Phonon Scattering on Exciton and Charge Diffusion in Polymer-Fullerene Solar Cells (pages 999–1003)

      Martin Presselt, Felix Herrmann, Harald Hoppe, Sviatoslav Shokhovets, Erich Runge and Gerhard Gobsch

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100793

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      Thermally activated transport and phonon scattering in P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is studied via temperature-dependent external-quantum-efficiency (EQE) spectroscopy. The EQE data can, over a broad temperature range, be described by a single analytical expression without the need for defining separate transport regimes. At an increased PCBM weight fraction, the exciton hopping barriers decrease for PCBM as the fraction of crystalline phases grows, but remain almost constant for P3HT.

    5. Click-Functionalized Ru(II) Complexes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1004–1012)

      Ilona Stengel, Nuttapol Pootrakulchote, Ryan R. Dykeman, Amaresh Mishra, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin, Paul J. Dyson, Michael Grätzel and Peter Bäuerle

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100722

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      Functional ancillary ligands for Ru(II) complexes are developed by facile synthesis using click chemistry. The sensitizers show power-conversion efficiencies of up to 9.9% in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a volatile electrolyte and a good long-term stability of up to 100% in DSSCs using an ionic liquid-based electrolyte.

    6. Electrodeposited MnOx Films from Ionic Liquid for Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation (pages 1013–1021)

      Fengling Zhou, Alexey Izgorodin, Rosalie K. Hocking, Leone Spiccia and Douglas R. MacFarlane

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100783

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      A variety of manganese oxide nano-structures with compositions ranging from birnessite-like manganese oxide to Mn2O3 and Mn3O4 are electrodeposited from a hydrated ionic liquid at 120 °C by controlling the proton activity. The films composed of the birnessite-like phase and Mn2O3 exhibit higher catalytic activities for water oxidation.

    7. Improved Functionality of Lithium-Ion Batteries Enabled by Atomic Layer Deposition on the Porous Microstructure of Polymer Separators and Coating Electrodes (pages 1022–1027)

      Yoon Seok Jung, Andrew S. Cavanagh, Lynn Gedvilas, Nicodemus E. Widjonarko, Isaac D. Scott, Se-Hee Lee, Gi-Heon Kim, Steven M. George and Anne C. Dillon

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201100750

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      A thin (∼6 nm) Al2O3-coated porous polypropylene (PP) separator for lithium-ion batteries is prepared with atomic layer deposition. The Al2O3 coating on porous PP microstructures not only significantly suppresses thermal shrinkage, leading to improved safety, but also enables compatibility with an extremely polar propylene carbonate-based electrolyte.

    8. A Novel Codoping Approach for Enhancing the Performance of LiFePO4 Cathodes (pages 1028–1032)

      Chunmei Ban, Wan-Jian Yin, Houwen Tang, Su-Huai Wei, Yanfa Yan and Anne C. Dillon

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200085

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      Donor-acceptor charge-compensated codoping has been utilized to modify the band structure of LiFePO4 from localized Fe 3d derived states to a more delocalized F s and cation s derived state, which leads to significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of LiFePO4 and much higher power capability than undoped LiFePO4.

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