Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 4

April, 2013

Volume 3, Issue 4

Pages 409–538

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
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      Organic Solar Cells: Improvement of Transparent Metal Top Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells by Introducing a High Surface Energy Seed Layer (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2013) (page 409)

      Sylvio Schubert, Jan Meiss, Lars Müller-Meskamp and Karl Leo

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201370015

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      The cover illustrates a flexible small molecule solar cell with three different semitransparent silverbased top electrodes using varying seed layers. With increasing surface energy of the seed layer, the wetting of subsequently deposited silver is significantly improved as indicated in the zoomed out SEM microscope images. For continuous and closed silver films, the transparency of the electrode, the optical field distribution inside the solar cell, and its power conversion efficiency are strongly increased. Further details can be found in the article by Sylvio Schubert and co-workers on page 438.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Polymer Solar Cells: Fabricating High Performance, Donor–Acceptor Copolymer Solar Cells by Spray-Coating in Air (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2013) (page 410)

      Tao Wang, Nicholas W. Scarratt, Hunan Yi, Alan D. F. Dunbar, Andrew J. Pearson, Darren C. Watters, Tom S. Glen, Andrew C. Brook, James Kingsley, Alastair R. Buckley, Maximilian W. A. Skoda, Athene M. Donald, Richard A. L. Jones, Ahmed Iraqi and David G. Lidzey

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201370016

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      David G. Lidzey, Tao Wang, and co-workers fabricate on page 505 high performance donor–acceptor carbazole based copolymer solar cells using spray coating in air. A range of inks have been designed to deliver uniform films over large area. The effects of solvent, substrate temperature and active layer thickness on device efficiency are explored. Vertical stratification of PCBM in the blends is revealed by neutron scattering.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2013)

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201370017

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2013) (pages 411–416)

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201370018

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. Toward High-Performance Semi-Transparent Polymer Solar Cells: Optimization of Ultra-Thin Light Absorbing Layer and Transparent Cathode Architecture (pages 417–423)

      Chu-Chen Chueh, Shang-Chieh Chien, Hin-Lap Yip, José Francisco Salinas, Chang-Zhi Li, Kung-Shih Chen, Fang-Chung Chen, Wen-Chang Chen and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200679

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      High-performance semi-transparent polymer photovoltaic devices (STOPVs) exhibiting both high transparency and superior color rendering properties are demonstrated. The ultra-thin photoactive layer (∼50 nm) possesses similar light absorbing efficiency as the thick case (∼90 nm) after optimization. Highly transparent fullerene surfactant/Ag hybrid cathode is used to enable suitable optical absorption, light transmittance, and effective collection of electrons. The resulting STOPVs exhibit a high power conversion efficiency (5.1%) and high average visible-light transmissivity (25%) with neutral color perception close to white light.

    2. Concentrated Light for Accelerated Photo Degradation of Polymer Materials (pages 424–427)

      Morten V. Madsen, Thomas Tromholt, Kion Norrman and Frederik C. Krebs

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200663

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      Concentrated light is used to perform photochemical degradation of polymer solar cell materials with acceleration factors up to 1200. At constant temperature the photon efficiency in regards to photo degradation is constant for 1–150 suns and oxygen diffusion rates are not a limiting factor. Accelerated degradation by concentrated light thus allows for rapid and precise evaluations of one sun polymer stabilities.

    3. Li3VO4: A Promising Insertion Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 428–432)

      Huiqiao Li, Xizheng Liu, Tianyou Zhai, De Li and Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200833

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      A new insertion anode material, Li3VO4, is reported for lithium ion batteries. It shows both a larger reversible capacity (323 mAh g−1) and a lower insertion voltage (0.5∼1.0 V vs. Li/Li+) thus can promise higher energy density than the typical insertion anode of Li4Ti5O12.

    4. Inverted Hybrid Solar Cells from Aqueous Materials with a PCE of 3.61% (pages 433–437)

      Zhaolai Chen, Hao Zhang, Weili Yu, Zibo Li, Jiadi Hou, Haotong Wei and Bai Yang

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200741

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      Inverted hybrid solar cells with high power conversion efficiency are fabricated from an aqueous poly(1,4-naphthalene vinylene) (PNV) precursor and CdTe nanocrystals (NCs). TiO2 and MoO3 are selected as the electron transport layer and hole transport layer, respectively, resulting in efficiencies that are comparable to those achieved with hybrid solar cells based on organic solvents.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. Improvement of Transparent Metal Top Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells by Introducing a High Surface Energy Seed Layer (pages 438–443)

      Sylvio Schubert, Jan Meiss, Lars Müller-Meskamp and Karl Leo

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200903

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      High performing metal top electrodes for organic solar cells are fabricated by introducing an ultrathin gold wetting layer for subsequent silver deposition. This enables conductive silver films down to thicknesses of 3 nm showing superior optical and electrical properties compared to indium tin oxide (ITO). Efficiencies of 4.7% are achieved for top-illuminated solar cells with silver electrode, on par with ITO-containing devices.

    2. The First Report on Excellent Cycling Stability and Superior Rate Capability of Na3V2(PO4)3 for Sodium Ion Batteries (pages 444–450)

      Kuppan Saravanan, Chad W. Mason, Ashish Rudola, Kim Hai Wong and Palani Balaya

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200803

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      Sodium ion batteries are attractive for the rapidly emerging large-scale energy storage market. Here we disclose for the first time, a high performance, durable electrode for non-aqueous NIBs based on Na3V2(PO4)3/C. This porous electrode is capable of 30000 cycles at 40 C with minimal capacity fade. Finally, scalable production is feasible due to the simplicity & cost effectiveness of the synthesis approach.

    3. Synthesis of High Aspect Ratio BaTiO3 Nanowires for High Energy Density Nanocomposite Capacitors (pages 451–456)

      Haixiong Tang, Yirong Lin and Henry A. Sodano

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200808

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      High energy density nanocomposite capacitors are fabricated using surface-functionalized high aspect ratio barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanowires in a poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)) matrix. These nanocomposites show a high energy density of 10.48 J/cc and a maximum power density as high as 1.2 MW/cc, occurring only 1.52 μs after the start of discharge.

    4. A New sp2-sp2 Dialkylethylene-Bridged Heptacyclic Ladder-Type Arene for High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells (pages 457–465)

      Jhong-Sian Wu, Yu-Ying Lai, Yen-Ju Cheng, Chih-Yu Chang, Chien-Lung Wang and Chain-Shu Hsu

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200929

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      A novel dithienobenzo-carbazole (DTBC) heptacyclic arene using sp2-sp2 dialkylethylene moiety as the bridge is successfully synthesized. This facile benzoannulation planarizes the conjugated framework with the concomitant introduction of four octyl substituents. The solar cell using DTBC-based polymer (PDTBCDTBT) produces a high efficiency of 6.2%, which outperforms the corresponding sp3-hybridized C-bridged, Si-bridged and N-bridged analogous polymers.

    5. Effect of Polymer Crystallinity in P3HT:PCBM Solar Cells on Band Gap Trap States and Apparent Recombination Order (pages 466–471)

      Donato Spoltore, Wibren D. Oosterbaan, Samira Khelifi, John N. Clifford, Aurelien Viterisi, Emilio Palomares, Marc Burgelman, Laurence Lutsen, Dirk Vanderzande and Jean Manca

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200674

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      The mass fraction of P3HT fibers in the active layer of P3HT:PCBM solar cells is varied, allowing the study of the apparent recombination order versus the crystallinity of P3HT. The amount of hole traps present in the energy gap of active layers is also measured, showing a correlation between the crystallinity, the apparent recombination order and the amount of traps.

    6. Efficient, Cyanine Dye Based Bilayer Solar Cells (pages 472–477)

      Olga Malinkiewicz, Thais Grancha, Agustin Molina-Ontoria, Alejandra Soriano, Hicham Brine and Henk J. Bolink

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200764

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      Simple bilayer solar cells, using commercially available cationic cyanine dyes as donors and evaporated C60 layer as an acceptor are prepared, reaching power conversion efficiencies ranging from 1.8 to 2.9% depending on the particular dye employed. The effects of counter-ion and HTL are evaluated.

    7. Impact of UV-Visible Light on the Morphological and Photochemical Behavior of a Low-Bandgap Poly(2,7-Carbazole) Derivative for Use in High-Performance Solar Cells (pages 478–487)

      Aurélien Tournebize, Pierre-Olivier Bussière, Pascal Wong-Wah-Chung, Sandrine Thérias, Agnès Rivaton, Jean-Luc Gardette, Serge Beaupré and Mario Leclerc

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200662

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      UV-visible light irradiation of a low-band-gap polycarbazole derivative (PCDTBT) provokes modifications of the chemical structure, with formation of low molecular weight photoproducts. These reactions are responsible for the evolution of the morphology and the nanomechanical properties of the material. Dots observed by AFM reveal the π-stacking of the carbazole units, which originates from scissions of C[BOND]N bonds of PCDTBT.

    8. High Thermoelectric Efficiency of n-type PbS (pages 488–495)

      Heng Wang, Eugen Schechtel, Yanzhong Pei and G. Jeffrey Snyder

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200683

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      PbS is a decent thermoelectric material rather than a poor one as previously believed. High quality polycrystalline PbS can have zT as high as 0.8 at 850 K. Though inferior in its binary form compared with PbTe and PbSe, PbS is more promising in achieving higher zT via material engineering.

    9. Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Novel Class of Ullazine Dyes as Sensitizers (pages 496–504)

      Amalie Dualeh, Robin Humphry-Baker, Jared Heath Delcamp, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin and Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200701

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      Ullazine-based sensitizers are reported for the first time in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells using the amorphous organic semiconductor, spiro-MeOTAD as hole transport material. The influence of the donor group and the position of the anchoring group is thoroughly explored and correlated to the performance in working devices.

    10. Fabricating High Performance, Donor–Acceptor Copolymer Solar Cells by Spray-Coating in Air (pages 505–512)

      Tao Wang, Nicholas W. Scarratt, Hunan Yi, Alan D. F. Dunbar, Andrew J. Pearson, Darren C. Watters, Tom S. Glen, Andrew C. Brook, James Kingsley, Alastair R. Buckley, Maximilian W. A. Skoda, Athene M. Donald, Richard A. L. Jones, Ahmed Iraqi and David G. Lidzey

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200713

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      High performance organic solar cells from the blend of donor–acceptor copolymers and PC70BM were made by spray-coating the photoactive layer in air. A high power conversion efficiency of 5% was achieved after device optimization. Neutron scattering measurements show that vertical stratification occurs during the film drying process, and the concentration of PCBM reduces towards the underlying PEDOT:PSS interface.

    11. Carbon Coated ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles for Advanced Lithium-Ion Anodes (pages 513–523)

      Dominic Bresser, Elie Paillard, Richard Kloepsch, Steffen Krueger, Martin Fiedler, René Schmitz, Dietmar Baither, Martin Winter and Stefano Passerini

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200735

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      Carbon coated ZnFe2O4 nanoparticle-based electrodes show exceptional specific capacity, higher than 1000 mAh g−1, and high rate performance upon long-term lithium uptake and release, benefiting from the utilization of environmentally friendly sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as binder. Furthermore, a new electrochemical reduction process occurring upon lithiation is proposed, based on in situ X-ray diffraction analysis.

    12. Highly-Tunable Nickel Cobalt Oxide as a Low-Temperature P-Type Contact in Organic Photovoltaic Devices (pages 524–531)

      Paul F. Ndione, Andres Garcia, N. Edwin Widjonarko, Ajaya K. Sigdel, K. Xerxes Steirer, Dana C. Olson, Philip A. Parilla, David S. Ginley, Neal R. Armstong, Robin E. Richards, Erin L. Ratcliff and Joseph J. Berry

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200742

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      Nickel cobalt oxide is investigated as a high conductivity p-type oxide for use as hole-transport layers (HTL) in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Using pulsed laser deposition, the conductivity is dramatically varied. This control over the material provides insight into the details of the interface and the operation of the HTL in OPV devices.

    13. Enhanced Cycling Performance of Li-O2 Batteries by the Optimized Electrolyte Concentration of LiTFSA in Glymes (pages 532–538)

      Fujun Li, Tao Zhang, Yuki Yamada, Atsuo Yamada and Haoshen Zhou

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200776

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      Cycling performance of Li-O2 batteries is related to the concentration of LiTFSA in glymes. This behavior may be extended to other Li salts and solvents and suggests a new route for screening cycling-stable electrolytes of Li-O2 batteries.

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