Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 6

June, 2013

Volume 3, Issue 6

Pages 689–820

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communication
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    8. Communications
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      Batteries: Na4-αM2+α/2(P2O7)2 (2/3 ≤ α ≤ 7/8, M = Fe, Fe0.5Mn0.5, Mn): A Promising Sodium Ion Cathode for Na-ion Batteries (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2013) (page 689)

      Kwang-Ho Ha, Seung Hee Woo, Duckgyun Mok, Nam-Soon Choi, Yuwon Park, Seung M. Oh, Youngshol Kim, Jeongsoo Kim, Junesoo Lee, Linda F. Nazar and Kyu Tae Lee

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201370023

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      Sodium-ion batteries are an attractive alternative to replace Lithium-ion batteries and Ni–metal hydride batteries for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. Kyu Tae Lee, Linda F. Nazar, and co-workers demonstrate on page 770, for the first time, the synthesis of new polyanion-based compounds, Na3.12M2.44(P2O7)2 (M=Fe, Fe0.5Mn0.5, Mn), and their electrochemical performance as a cathode material for Na ion batteries. The deliberate synthesis of the off-stoichiometric phase, Na3.42Fe2.44(P2O7)2.05 shows excellent cycle and rate performance, and this is attributed to the spacious channel size along the a-axis, along with a single phase transformation upon de/sodiation.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communication
    7. Frontispiece
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      Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: On the Active Surface State of Nickel-Ceria Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes During Methane Electrooxidation (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2013) (page 690)

      Vasiliki Papaefthimiou, Maxim Shishkin, Dimitris K. Niakolas, Michalis Athanasiou, Yeuk Ting Law, Rosa Arrigo, Detre Teschner, Michael Hävecker, Axel Knop-Gericke, Robert Schlögl, Tom Ziegler, Stylianos G. Neophytides and Spyridon Zafeiratos

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201370024

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      Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are recognized as a viable technology to convert chemical energy directly into electricity, with higher efficiencies than conventional thermal engines. On page 762, Spyridon Zafeiratos and co-workers describe the fundamental characteristics of an operating nickel gadolinium-doped ceria (Ni/GDC) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode, and establish the optimal surface state for maximum cell currents.

  3. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2013)

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201370025

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communication
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
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  5. Communication

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    1. Conformal Coatings of Cyclized-PAN for Mechanically Resilient Si nano-Composite Anodes (pages 697–702)

      Daniela Molina Piper, Thomas A. Yersak, Seoung-Bum Son, Seul Cham Kim, Chan Soon Kang, Kyu Hwan Oh, Chunmei Ban, Anne C. Dillon and Se-Hee Lee

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200850

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      Cyclized-polyacrylonitrile (cyclized-PAN) is used as a conformal coating on nano-Si for highly reversible anodes. Cyclization of PAN proceeds by limiting the pyrolysis to 300 °C such that the cyclized-PAN maintains its polymeric properties while also providing sp2 π bonding for good electronic conductivity. Cyclized-PAN is thus a conjugated polymer with good mechanical resiliency to accommodate Si's volumetric expansion and also good mixed conductivity.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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    5. Contents
    6. Communication
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      Dual-Functional Upconverter-Doped TiO2 Hollow Shells for Light Scattering and Near-Infrared Sunlight Harvesting in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2013) (page 703)

      Xia Wu, Gao Qing (Max) Lu and Lianzhou Wang

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201370027

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      A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) composed of dual-functional upconverter-doped TiO2 hollow shells for enhanced performance is developed by Lianzhou Wang and co-workers on page 704. The performance improvement is due to the dual-functional layer, which is not only efficient for light scattering but also enhances near-infrared light harvesting and utilization in DSSC.

  7. Communications

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    1. Dual-Functional Upconverter-Doped TiO2 Hollow Shells for Light Scattering and Near-Infrared Sunlight Harvesting in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 704–707)

      Xia Wu, Gao Qing (Max) Lu and Lianzhou Wang

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200933

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      Upconverter-doped TiO2 hollow shells prepared by a simple one-pot hydrothermal method can be used as a dual-functional top-layer in the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells, not only improving the light scattering, but also enhancing near-infrared light harvesting of the DSSC cells.

    2. Nitrogen-Enriched Carbons from Alkali Salts with High Coulombic Efficiency for Energy Storage Applications (pages 708–712)

      Bingkun Guo, Xiao-Guang Sun, Gabriel M. Veith, Zhonghe Bi, Shannon M. Mahurin, Chen Liao, Craig Bridges, Mariappan Parans Paranthaman and Sheng Dai

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200925

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      A new type of nitrogen-enriched carbon materials is synthesized from nitrile-rich alkali salts. High nitrogen content is obtained for these alkali salts precursors after annealing at 850 °C. These nitrogen-enriched carbons exhibit high coulombic efficiency, high reversible capacity and good cycling stability as anode materials for both mature lithium ion batteries and newly rejuvenated sodium ion batteries.

    3. A Thin-Film Direct Hydrogen Peroxide/Borohydride Micro Fuel Cell (pages 713–717)

      Yonggang Wang, Ziyang Guo and Yongyao Xia

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200975

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      A novel thin-film direct hydrogen peroxide/borohydride micro fuel cell with a high operating voltage of 1.6 V is fabricated by a facile method.

    4. Investigation of a Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Interlayer for Inverted Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells (pages 718–723)

      Ruidong Xia, Dong-Seok Leem, Thomas Kirchartz, Steve Spencer, Craig Murphy, Zhicai He, Hongbin Wu, Shijian Su, Yong Cao, Ji Seon Kim, John C. deMello, Donal D.C. Bradley and Jenny Nelson

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200967

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      Inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells are fabricated using a conjugated polyelectrolyte (PFN) as a cathode interlayer. Enhanced photovoltaic performance is achieved by adjusting the PFN thickness. Measurements of the optical transmittance, cathode work function (via UPS) and surface atomic composition (via XPS) provide insights into this optimization. Drift-diffusion simulations point to a reduction in recombination of holes at the cathode as the main cause for improving Voc.

    5. A Solution-Processable Electron Acceptor Based on Dibenzosilole and Diketopyrrolopyrrole for Organic Solar Cells (pages 724–728)

      Yuze Lin, Yongfang Li and Xiaowei Zhan

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200911

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      A novel linear non-fullerene acceptor (DBS-2DPP) based on dibenzosilole and diketopyrrolopyrrole is designed and synthesized. DBS-2DPP exhibits strong and broad absorption and appropriate energy levels matching with P3HT. Solution-processed BHJ OSCs based on P3HT:DBS-2DPP show PCEs as high as 2.05%.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communication
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Study of Thermal Decomposition of Li1-x(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)0.9O2 Using In-Situ High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction (pages 729–736)

      Zonghai Chen, Yang Ren, Eungje Lee, Christopher Johnson, Yan Qin and Khalil Amine

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201201059

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      An in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction technique is deployed to investigate the thermal decomposition of a delithiated Li1-x[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]0.9O2 cathode during thermal abuse. A mechanism based on proton intercalation is proposed to explain the negative impact of LiPF6 on the thermal stability of Li1-x[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]0.9O2.

    2. Rationally Designed Hierarchical TiO2@Fe2O3 Hollow Nanostructures for Improved Lithium Ion Storage (pages 737–743)

      Jingshan Luo, Xinhui Xia, Yongsong Luo, Cao Guan, Jilei Liu, Xiaoying Qi, Chin Fan Ng, Ting Yu, Hua Zhang and Hong Jin Fan

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200953

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      Hollow TiO2 nanorods with surface coated with Fe2O3 nanospikes are fabricated using atomic layer deposition and a sacrificial template. The LIB anode based on the obtained nanostructure exhibits a high reversible capacity (initial value 840 mAh g−1), improved cycle stability (530 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at the current density of 200 mA g−1) as well as outstanding rate capability.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Understanding the Reduced Efficiencies of Organic Solar Cells Employing Fullerene Multiadducts as Acceptors (pages 744–752)

      Mark A. Faist, Safa Shoaee, Sachetan Tuladhar, George F. A. Dibb, Samuel Foster, Wei Gong, Thomas Kirchartz, Donal D. C. Bradley, James R. Durrant and Jenny Nelson

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200673

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      This article discusses the reasons for the decreased photovoltaic performance of absorber layers where polymers other than P3HT are blended with fullerene multiadducts like ICBA and bis-PCBM. It is found that the reduced performance is due to a mixture of reduced charge generation due to the smaller band offsets and reduced electron mobilities.

    4. Li4Ti5O12 Nanocrystals Synthesized by Carbon Templating from Solution Precursors Yield High Performance Thin Film Li-Ion Battery Electrodes (pages 753–761)

      Xiaoguang Hao and Bart M. Bartlett

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200964

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      High power Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanocrystals can be synthesized by a carbon-templating method for Li-ion battery electrodes. These electrodes demonstrate reversible cycling of 160 mAh/g at both 1 C and 10 C current, and remains above 150 mAh/g even at 100 C.

    5. On the Active Surface State of Nickel-Ceria Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes During Methane Electrooxidation (pages 762–769)

      Vasiliki Papaefthimiou, Maxim Shishkin, Dimitris K. Niakolas, Michalis Athanasiou, Yeuk Ting Law, Rosa Arrigo, Detre Teschner, Michael Hävecker, Axel Knop-Gericke, Robert Schlögl, Tom Ziegler, Stylianos G. Neophytides and Spyridon Zafeiratos

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200727

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      Nickel gadolinium-doped ceria (Ni/GDC) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes are studied in situ under methane electroxidation conditions using ambient pressure spectroscopies. The oxidation state and composition of the anode for optimal electrocatalytic performance are determined. The detailed mechanism of the voltage generation over Ni/GDC anodes is described by means of first principles calculations.

    6. Na4-αM2+α/2(P2O7)2 (2/3 ≤ α ≤ 7/8, M = Fe, Fe0.5Mn0.5, Mn): A Promising Sodium Ion Cathode for Na-ion Batteries (pages 770–776)

      Kwang-Ho Ha, Seung Hee Woo, Duckgyun Mok, Nam-Soon Choi, Yuwon Park, Seung M. Oh, Youngshol Kim, Jeongsoo Kim, Junesoo Lee, Linda F. Nazar and Kyu Tae Lee

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200825

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      A promising new polyanion-based compound, Na3.12M2.44(P2O7)2 (M=Fe, Fe0.5Mn0.5, Mn) is synthesized and examined as a cathode for Na ion batteries. Off-stoichiometric synthesis induces the formation of a Na-rich phase, Na3.32Fe2.34(P2O7)2 which delivers a reversible capacity of about 85 mA h g−1 at ca. 3 V vs. Na/Na+ with very stable cycle performance.

    7. Cu2-xS Surface Phases and Their Impact on the Electronic Structure of CuInS2 Thin Films – A Hidden Parameter in Solar Cell Optimization (pages 777–781)

      Marcus Bär, Joachim Klaer, Lothar Weinhardt, Regan G. Wilks, Stefan Krause, Monika Blum, Wanli Yang, Clemens Heske and Hans-Werner Schock

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200946

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      Spatially separated CuInS2 (CIS) surface regions of varying colors are observed and shown to be dominated by either CuS or Cu2S phases. After removal, the chemical and electronic CIS surface structure still differs. Thus, for a systematic CIS material optimization towards higher-efficiency thin-film solar cells, the Cu2-xS surface phase composition should be monitored/controlled.

    8. Efficient Polymer Solar Cells on Opaque Substrates with a Laminated PEDOT:PSS Top Electrode (pages 782–787)

      Dhritiman Gupta, Martijn M. Wienk and René A. J. Janssen

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201201061

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      ITO free high efficiency polymer solar cells on opaque substrates such as steel are fabricated in conventional and inverted configurations using a high conductive PEDOT:PSS transparent top electrode and a silver collecting grid. The PEDOT:PSS top electrode is deposited using a stamp-transfer lamination technique, resulting in an essentially loss-free contact.

    9. Nanoscale Probing of Voltage Activated Oxygen Reduction/Evolution Reactions in Nanopatterned (LaxSr1-x)CoO3-δ Cathodes (pages 788–797)

      Donovan N. Leonard, Amit Kumar, Stephen Jesse, Michael D. Biegalski, Hans M. Christen, Eva Mutoro, Ethan J. Crumlin, Yang Shao-Horn, Sergei V. Kalinin and Albina Y. Borisevich

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200681

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      Mechanisms of electrochemical processes in a cobaltite film are studied using dynamic electrochemical strain microscopy. The reversible oxygen reduction/evolution process starts at 3–4 V, and an irreversible process causing surface deformation manifests above 10–12 V. Post-mortem focused-ion beam milling and atomic resolution electron microscopy show that surface deformation is due to local amorphization.

    10. Development of MoS2–CNT Composite Thin Film from Layered MoS2 for Lithium Batteries (pages 798–805)

      Jia-Zhao Wang, Lin Lu, Mustafa Lotya, Jonathan N. Coleman, Shu-Lei Chou, Hua-Kun Liu, Andrew I. Minett and Jun Chen

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201201000

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      A novel facile filtration/wet transfer technique is developed for the fabrication of layered MoS2/SWNTs porous thin films for lithium battery applications with excellent performance (992 mAh g−1) and outstanding stability.

    11. Conformational Disorder Enhances Solubility and Photovoltaic Performance of a Thiophene–Quinoxaline Copolymer (pages 806–814)

      Ergang Wang, Jonas Bergqvist, Koen Vandewal, Zaifei Ma, Lintao Hou, Angelica Lundin, Scott Himmelberger, Alberto Salleo, Christian Müller, Olle Inganäs, Fengling Zhang and Mats R. Andersson

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201201019

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      The side-chain architecture of alternating copolymers based on thiophene and quinoxaline strongly influences the solubility and photovoltaic performance. In contrast to other donor polymers, the solubility as well as photovoltaic performance are maximized for the most disordered polymer that features a high degree of backbone twisting.

    12. Controlling Metallurgical Phase Separation Reactions of the Ge0.87Pb0.13Te Alloy for High Thermoelectric Performance (pages 815–820)

      Yaniv Gelbstein, Joseph Davidow, Steven N. Girard, Duck Young Chung and Mercouri Kanatzidis

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200970

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      Highly efficient PbTe based thermoelectric materials are reported with maximal ZT values of ∼2, due to phase separation reactions resulted in sub-micro thermodynamically driven features. The reported materials are among the most efficient thermoelectric bulk materials ever reported.

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