Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 11

August 5, 2014

Volume 4, Issue 11

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
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      Catalytic Materials: Sn-Coupled p-Si Nanowire Arrays for Solar Formate Production from CO2 (Adv. Energy Mater. 11/2014)

      Sung Kyu Choi, Unseock Kang, Seunghoon Lee, Dong Jin Ham, Sang Min Ji and Hyunwoong Park

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470055

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Vertically aligned, free standing p-Si nanowire arrays of varying lengths are grown on p-Si wafers and coupled with Sn nanoparticles. As reported by Sang Min Ji, Hyunwoong Park, and co-workers in article number 1301614, these heterojunction wire/Sn arrays increase the production of formate by more than 10 and 5 times compared to planar p-Si and wire arrays, respectively, with Faradaic efficiencies of ≈40% in a single cell.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
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      Nanowire Arrays: A Low-Frequency Energy Harvester from Ultralong, Vertically Aligned BaTiO3 Nanowire Arrays (Adv. Energy Mater. 11/2014)

      Aneesh Koka and Henry A. Sodano

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470056

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      Highly compliant ultralong (≈40 μm) vertically aligned BaTiO3 nanowire arrays, synthesized using a newly developed hydrothermal process, act as promising candidates for fabrication of low frequency energy harvesters, as demonstrated by Aneesh Koka and Henry A. Sodano in article number 1301660. This novel ultralong BaTiO3 nanowire array based energy harvester has several favorable attributes such as compact size, lowresonant frequency, and biocompatibility for its practical implementation in consumer electronics and biomedical applications.

  3. Back Cover

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    5. Masthead
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      Solar Cells: Domain Compositions and Fullerene Aggregation Govern Charge Photogeneration in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells (Adv. Energy Mater. 11/2014)

      Sameer Vajjala Kesava, Zhuping Fei, Adam D. Rimshaw, Cheng Wang, Alexander Hexemer, John B. Asbury, Martin Heeney and Enrique D. Gomez

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470059

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Composition maps, shown within a photovoltaic device, are generated from energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images to map out the compositional heterogeneities in the active layer of polymer/fullerene solar cells with nanometer resolution. As reported by Enrique D. Gomez and coworkers in article number 1400116, these images help elucidate the complex relationship between the microstructure of the active layer and the performance of organic photovoltaic devices.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 11/2014)

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470058

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
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    1. You have free access to this content
      Contents: (Adv. Energy Mater. 11/2014)

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470057

  6. Communications

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    5. Masthead
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    1. Improved Cu2O-Based Solar Cells Using Atomic Layer Deposition to Control the Cu Oxidation State at the p-n Junction

      Sang Woon Lee, Yun Seog Lee, Jaeyeong Heo, Sin Cheng Siah, Danny Chua, Riley E. Brandt, Sang Bok Kim, Jonathan P. Mailoa, Tonio Buonassisi and Roy G. Gordon

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301916

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      Solar cells are produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of n-type amorphous zinc-tin-oxide buffer layers on electrochemically deposited p-type cuprous oxide, Cu2O, absorber layers. The diethylzinc precursor in the ALD process reduces Cu2+-related defects at the heterojunction interface, improving the solar-cell open-circuit voltage. An NREL-certified power conversion efficiency of 2.85% is reported.

    2. Harnessing Steric Separation of Freshly Nucleated Li2S Nanoparticles for Bottom-Up Assembly of High-Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Sulfur and Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Feixiang Wu, Hyea Kim, Alexandre Magasinski, Jung Tae Lee, Huan-Ting Lin and Gleb Yushin

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400196

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      A nanostructured C-Li2S composite nanopowder is prepared via a scalable, high-throughput solution-processing method based on the steric separation of freshly nucleated Li2S nanoparticles and their self-assembling. Each 100–200 nm particle is composed of smaller 5–20 nm Li2S nanoparticles uniformly distributed within a rigid carbon matrix. When used as a cathode material for Li cells, this composite demonstrates high rate performance, near-theoretical capacity utilization, and excellent cycle stability.

    3. Weaving Efficient Polymer Solar Cell Wires into Flexible Power Textiles

      Zhitao Zhang, Zhibin Yang, Zhongwei Wu, Guozhen Guan, Shaowu Pan, Ye Zhang, Houpu Li, Jue Deng, Baoquan Sun and Huisheng Peng

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301750

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      Novel wire-shaped polymer solar cells that have high performance are developed by introducing a thin layer of titania nanoparticles that increases the charge separation and transport and an aligned carbon nanotube fiber electrode that increases their stability. These solar cell wires are easily woven into flexible clothes that serve as lightweight and deformable power sources for portable electronic devices.

    4. Confined Ultrasmall SnO2 Particles in Micro/Mesoporous Carbon as an Extremely Long Cycle-Life Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

      Ali Jahel, Camélia Matei Ghimbeu, Laure Monconduit and Cathie Vix-Guterl

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400025

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      Nanoconfinement of ultrasmall SnO2 particles in mesoporous carbon with suitable pore size is demonstrated as an efficient method for creating extremely long cycle-life anode battery materials. Exceptional rate capability, high Coulombic efficiency, and excellent cyclic reversibility are shown. The high capacity at high current rate and long cycling makes this composite a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    5. Sn-Coupled p-Si Nanowire Arrays for Solar Formate Production from CO2

      Sung Kyu Choi, Unseock Kang, Seunghoon Lee, Dong Jin Ham, Sang Min Ji and Hyunwoong Park

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301614

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Vertically aligned, free-standing p-Si nanowire arrays of varying lengths are grown on p-Si wafers and coupled with Sn nanoparticles for solar CO2 conversion. These heterojunction wire/Sn arrays increase the production of formate dramatically, by more than 10 and 5 times compared to planar p-Si and wire arrays, respectively, with Faradaic efficiencies of ≈40% in a single cell and 88% in a H-type cell.

    6. Molecular Engineering of New Thienyl-Bodipy Dyes for Highly Efficient Panchromatic Sensitized Solar Cells

      Chuanjiang Qin, Antoine Mirloup, Nicolas Leclerc, Ashraful Islam, Ahmed El-Shafei, Liyuan Han and Raymond Ziessel

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400085

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      Stepwise construction of thienyl-bodipy dyes bearing a carboxylic acid or an acrylate function is realized. The color of the dye is tuned by the presence of one or two vinyl-thienyl arms. These highly colored dyes exhibit strong absorption spanning to 760 nm when anchored to TiO2 nanoparticles. The use of two complementary absorbing dyes produces a conversion efficiency of 6.43% and a incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (ICPE) plateau of about 70% between 500 and 700 nm.

    7. 8% Efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Solar Cells from Redox Equilibrated Simple Precursors in DMSO

      Hao Xin, John K. Katahara, Ian L. Braly and Hugh W. Hillhouse

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301823

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      8.3% efficient Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells are demonstrated from an absorber film processed from molecular precursor solution of simple salts, thiourea, and dimethyl sulf­oxide (DMSO). Characterizations of the absorber film and devices reveal a pure kesterite absorber material with imperfect morphology, which suggests great potential for further improvement in device performance.

    8. Metal−Organic Framework-Derived Nitrogen-Doped Core-Shell-Structured Porous Fe/Fe3C@C Nanoboxes Supported on Graphene Sheets for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reactions

      Yang Hou, Taizhong Huang, Zhenhai Wen, Shun Mao, Shumao Cui and Junhong Chen

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400337

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      A novel core-shell-structured hybrid as an oxygen reduction reaction catalyst, consisting of nitrogen-doped porous Fe/Fe3C@C nanoboxes supported on graphene sheets, is synthesized through simple pyrolysis of graphene oxide-supported iron-based metal−organic frameworks. The hybrid exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity than a commercial Pt/C catalyst, excellent long-term stability, and superior methanol tolerance due to the synergistic effect between N-doped Fe/Fe3C@C and N-doped graphene sheets.

    9. A Three Dimensional Multi-Layered Sliding Triboelectric Nanogenerator

      Weiming Du, Xun Han, Long Lin, Mengxiao Chen, Xiaoyi Li, Caofeng Pan and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301592

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      A novel design of a 3D triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. Because of its largely increased friction areas, the device has a multi-layered structure, high transferred-charge-quantity, and current output. It delivers an open-circuit voltage of 800 V, a short-circuit current density of 5.5 mA m-2 with a maximum instantaneous power of 4.4 W m-2. This represents important progress toward practical applications in self-powered technologies.

    10. A Low-Frequency Energy Harvester from Ultralong, Vertically Aligned BaTiO3 Nanowire Arrays

      Aneesh Koka and Henry A. Sodano

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301660

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An energy harvester with a low resonant frequency using ultralong vertically aligned BaTiO3 nanowire arrays is developed and its power harvesting behavior is characterized when subjected to low amplitude base vibrations. The BaTiO3 nanowire energy harvester has favorable attributes such as compact size and low resonant frequency for its potential implementation in consumer electronics and biomedical applications.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Solution-Based Silicon in Thin-Film Solar Cells

      Torsten Bronger, Paul H. Wöbkenberg, Jan Wördenweber, Stefan Muthmann, Ulrich W. Paetzold, Vladimir Smirnov, Stephan Traut, Ümit Dagkaldiran, Stephan Wieber, Michael Cölle, Anna Prodi-Schwab, Odo Wunnicke, Matthias Patz, Martin Trocha, Uwe Rau and Reinhard Carius

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301871

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      Solution-based semiconductors are a promising new material class in thin-film electronics. So far, the quality of the device made of such material has been rather poor. Here, solar cells made of solution-based silicon with an efficiency of 3.5%, exceeding previous results by a factor of seven, are reported. This may pave the way for development of industrial applications.

    2. Identifying the Impact of Surface Recombination at Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells by Means of Electroluminescence and Modeling

      Jens Reinhardt, Maria Grein, Christian Bühler, Martin Schubert and Uli Würfel

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400081

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      Current-voltage characteristics, electroluminescence measurements, and modeling are used to identify the selectivity of electrodes in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. A strong correlation is found between the electrode selectivity, the open circuit voltage, and forward current of the device, and the electroluminescence yield. This is fully reproduced in the numerical simulations.

    3. Impact of Hole Transport Layer Surface Properties on the Morphology of a Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction

      N. Edwin Widjonarko, Philip Schulz, Philip A. Parilla, Craig L. Perkins, Paul F. Ndione, Ajaya K. Sigdel, Dana C. Olson, David S. Ginley, Antoine Kahn, Michael F. Toney and Joseph J. Berry

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301879

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      Quantification of structural morphology in poly(3-hexylthiophene):1-(3-methoxy­carbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]C 61 (P3HT:PCBM) bulk-heterojunctions (BHJs) is done by combining novel X-ray analysis, contact angle, and depth-profile X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to show that the BHJ morphology is mostly insensitive to the surface properties of the underlying substrate. The results and methodology are readily applicable to a diverse set of organic electronic systems.

    4. Broadband Plasmonic Photocurrent Enhancement in Planar Organic Photovoltaics Embedded in a Metallic Nanocavity

      Matthew E. Sykes, Adam Barito, Jojo A. Amonoo, Peter F. Green and Max Shtein

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301937

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      The process of broadband plasmonic photocurrent enhancement is studied using planar organic photovoltaics composed of archetypal boron subpthalocyanine chloride/fullerene (SubPc/C60) heterojunctions embedded within semitransparent silver nanocavities. External quantum efficiency enhancement factors of 4.3×/2.8× over normal incidence are demonstrated for inverted/conventional devices on resonance. The absorption efficiency is shown to be nearly identical between devices at surface plasmon resonance, while a higher internal quantum efficiency is exhibited in inverted structures.

    5. High-Performance, Transparent, Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for See-Through Photovoltaic Windows

      Kun Zhang, Chuanjiang Qin, Xudong Yang, Ashraful Islam, Shufang Zhang, Han Chen and Liyuan Han

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301966

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      Transparent dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with high transparency and efficiency based on a UV/near-infrared (NIR) dye cocktail system are demonstrated. The transparent cocktail DSCs are fabricated with Y1 and HSQ5 dyes, taking the advantage of the dyes’ strong absorption in the UV and NIR regions. The best transparent cell exhibits a light transmittance of 60.3% and an efficiency of 3.66%.

    6. Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency

      Ning Li, Derya Baran, George D. Spyropoulos, Hong Zhang, Stephane Berny, Mathieu Turbiez, Tayebeh Ameri, Frederik C. Krebs and Christoph J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400084

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      Organic tandem solar cells fabricated by a mass-production-compatible coating technique under ambient conditions reach exceptionally high fill factors and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 7.66% (on glass) and 5.56% (on flexible substrate). This achievement, along with the optical simulation, reveals that a maximum PCE of 21% is theoretically achievable for large-scale production of organic tandem solar cells.

    7. Domain Compositions and Fullerene Aggregation Govern Charge Photogeneration in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells

      Sameer Vajjala Kesava, Zhuping Fei, Adam D. Rimshaw, Cheng Wang, Alexander Hexemer, John B. Asbury, Martin Heeney and Enrique D. Gomez

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400116

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      The effect of domain compositions and fullerene aggregation on charge photogeneration and device performance in low band-gap polymer/fullerene solar cells is examined. Composition maps generated from energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the compositions of mixed phases are correlated with polaron yields and device performance.

    8. Integrating ZnO Microwires with Nanoscale Electrodes Using a Suspended PMMA Ribbon for Studying Reliable Electrical and Electromechanical Properties

      Hakseong Kim, Hoyeol Yun, Ho Ang Yoon and Sang Wook Lee

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301973

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      ZnO-microwire-based electronic and electromechanical devices are fabricated by using the suspended cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) ribbon structure. The electrical connection between the ZnO microwire and the nanoscale circuit is mediated by the PMMA ribbon structure. Electrical contact and piezoelectric properties of the fabricated devices are investigated.

    9. A New Spinel-Layered Li-Rich Microsphere as a High-Rate Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

      Dong Luo, Guangshe Li, Chaochao Fu, Jing Zheng, Jianming Fan, Qi Li and Liping Li

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400062

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      Spinel-layered lithium-rich Li-Mn-Co-O microspheres are prepared using a solvothermal-precursor method. Introduction of a spinel-like structure to the layered Li-rich cathode forms new spinel-layered microspheres, which are essential for high rate Li-ion batteries. The synthetic method reported will provide a new way to prepare assembled microspheres with promising applications as excellent high-rate electrode materials.

    10. Cyclopenta[c]thiophene-4,6-dione-Based Copolymers as Organic Photovoltaic Donor Materials

      Zbyslaw R. Owczarczyk, Wade A. Braunecker, Stefan D. Oosterhout, Nikos Kopidakis, Ross E. Larsen, David S. Ginley and Dana C. Olson

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301821

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      An integrated approach for optimizing organic photovoltaic (OPV) absorber materials is discussed. The approach utilizes theoretical calculations to design candidate materials and contactless time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to evaluate those materials for OPV applications prior to their optimization in devices. The approach is demonstrated for a class of “push–pull” copolymer absorbers based on cyclopenta[c]thiophene-4,6-dione (CTD).

    11. Polysulfonated Fluoro-oxyPBI Membranes for PEMFCs: An Efficient Strategy to Achieve Good Fuel Cell Performances with Low H3PO4 Doping Levels

      Davide Carlo Villa, Simone Angioni, Sonia Dal Barco, Piercarlo Mustarelli and Eliana Quartarone

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301949

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      Polybenzimidazoles are promising materials to replace Nafion in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The actual challenge is a compromise between H3PO4 doping level and membrane stability and the design of new materials offers promising opportunities. Here, highly efficient novel polysulfonated fluoro-oxy polybenzimidazole (fluoro-oxyPBI)-based membranes for PEMFCs are reported. Robust, performing, and durable electrolytes are obtained even in presence of low acid doping level.

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