Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 4

March 11, 2014

Volume 4, Issue 4

  1. Cover Picture

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    4. Masthead
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    6. Correction
    7. Reviews
    8. Communications
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    10. Research News
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      Batteries: Lithiation-Induced Dilation Mapping in a Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode by 3D X-Ray Microscopy and Digital Volume Correlation (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2014)

      David S. Eastwood, Vladimir Yufit, Jeff Gelb, Allen Gu, Robert S. Bradley, Stephen J. Harris, Daniel J. L. Brett, Nigel P. Brandon, Peter D. Lee, Philip J. Withers and Paul R. Shearing

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470016

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      The Zeiss Xradia Versa XRM system was used for repeated 3D imaging of an Li battery in operand, allowing study of microstructural evolution in the device. The image reveals the detailed internal electrode structure of the working coin cell, which is colored to represent electrode morphology changes as a function of state of charge. David S. Eastwood, Peter D. Lee, Paul R. Shearing and co-workers discuss more in article number 1300506.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Supercapacitors: Recent Advances in Design and Fabrication of Electrochemical Supercapacitors with High Energy Densities (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2014)

      Jun Yan, Qian Wang, Tong Wei and Zhuangjun Fan

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470017

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      The recent progress in the research and development of high-performance electrode materials and high-energy supercapacitors is reviewed by Zhuangjun Fan and co-workers in article number 1300816. This review not only provides fundamental insight into supercapacitors but also offers an important guideline for future design of advanced next-generation supercapacitors for both industrial and consumer applications.

  3. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2014)

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470019

  4. Contents

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    3. Inside Front Cover
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      Contents: (Adv. Energy Mater. 4/2014)

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470018

  5. Correction

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      The Effect of PCBM Dimerization on the Performance of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Andreas Distler, Tobias Sauermann, Hans-Joachim Egelhaaf, Sheila Rodman, Dave Waller, Kap-Soo Cheon, Mike Lee and Dirk M. Guldi

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400171

      This article corrects:
  6. Reviews

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      Recent Advances in Design and Fabrication of Electrochemical Supercapacitors with High Energy Densities

      Jun Yan, Qian Wang, Tong Wei and Zhuangjun Fan

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300816

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      Recent progress in the research and development of high performance electrode materials and high-energy supercapacitors is reviewed, providing fundamental insight into supercapacitors and offering important guidelines for future design of advanced, next-generation supercapacitors for industrial and consumer applications.

  7. Communications

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    1. Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Low Band-Gap Polymer Solar Cells by Insertion of Optimized Binary Processing Additives

      Dong Hwan Wang, Aung Ko Ko Kyaw, Jean-Rémi Pouliot, Mario Leclerc and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300835

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      Low band-gap polymer solar cells with enhanced efficiency are fabricated by insertion of optimized binary processing additives. Binary processing additives improve phase separation with finer nanomorphology at the BHJ films, resulting in increased short circuit current density, JSC. Moreover, the device with binary processing additives exhibits a reduced series resistance compared to the device without additives.

    2. Diffraction-Grating-Embedded Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Good Light Harvesting

      Jeeyoung Lee and Myeongkyu Lee

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300978

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      A refractive-index grating is embedded in the bottom of the TiO2 absorption layer of a dye-sensitized solar cell via imprinting and subsequent TiCl4 treatment. This architecture has little influence on the dye coverage but greatly enhances light harvesting and photon-to-electron conversion efficiency by diffracting the incident light. A 24% increase in the photocurrent density is achieved.

    3. Mo-Compound/CNT-Graphene Composites as Efficient Catalytic Electrodes for Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Minsu Seol, Duck Hyun Youn, Jae Young Kim, Ji-Wook Jang, Mingi Choi, Jae Sung Lee and Kijung Yong

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300775

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      Molybdenum-based catalysts (Mo2N, Mo2C, and MoS2) supported on electrically conductive carbon nanotube–reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid composites offer options for synthesizing catalytic electrodes that can replace the noble-metal counter electrodes used in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. These electrodes display remarkable electrocatalytic activity and high stability.

    4. Three-Dimensionally “Curved” NiO Nanomembranes as Ultrahigh Rate Capability Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries with Long Cycle Lifetimes

      Xiaolei Sun, Chenglin Yan, Yao Chen, Wenping Si, Junwen Deng, Steffen Oswald, Lifeng Liu and Oliver G. Schmidt

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300912

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      Three-dimensionally “curved” NiO nanomembranes made using a simple fabrication technique followed by a thermal oxidation process are reported. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the curved NiO nanomembranes exhibit impressive results, i.e., ultrafast power rate (50 C), a high capacity of 721 mAh g−1 at 1.5 C, and a long lifetime of 1400 cycles, making them attractive for high power Li-ion batteries.

    5. Side-Chain Tunability via Triple Component Random Copolymerization for Better Photovoltaic Polymers

      Wei-Hsuan Chang, Jing Gao, Letian Dou, Chun-Chao Chen, Yongsheng Liu and Yang Yang

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300864

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      Using a triple component random copolymerization approach, the amount of triethylene glycol (TEG) side chain, which can be regarded as a stack-inducing agent, is introduced precisely into a given polymer backbone. TEG side chains result in a more favorable morphology in a polymer:fullerene blend. Based on the low-bandgap photovoltaic polymer PBDTT-DPP (PBD), this methodology can bring a 10% overall improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE).

    6. Improving the Cycling Stability of Metal–Nitride Supercapacitor Electrodes with a Thin Carbon Shell

      Xihong Lu, Tianyu Liu, Teng Zhai, Gongming Wang, Minghao Yu, Shilei Xie, Yichuan Ling, Chaolun Liang, Yexiang Tong and Yat Li

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300994

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      The electrochemical stability of metal–nitride (TiN and VN) electrodes is improved by a general strategy involving the addition of a thin carbon shell to the metal–nitride nanowires (NWs), producing TiN@C and VN@C NWs. The carbon shell effectively suppresses any electrochemical oxidation reactions, allowing the metal nitrides to retain their structure, without sacrificing their electrochemical performance for charge storage.

  8. Full Papers

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    4. Masthead
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    1. Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin Films as Ultrabarriers for Organic Electronics

      Hisato Yamaguchi, Jimmy Granstrom, Wanyi Nie, Hossein Sojoudi, Takeshi Fujita, Damien Voiry, Mingwei Chen, Gautam Gupta, Aditya D. Mohite, Samuel Graham and Manish Chhowalla

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300986

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      Ultrabarriers that are impermeable, flexible, and optically transparent are achieved by uniform and continuous thin (≈10 nm) films of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The close packing of interlayer distance and restoration of pristine graphene nanoislands induced by the annealing of GO led to substantially improved lifetime of encapsulated organic photovoltaic devices.

    2. Balanced Carrier Mobilities: Not a Necessary Condition for High-Efficiency Thin Organic Solar Cells as Determined by MIS-CELIV

      Ardalan Armin, Gytis Juska, Mujeeb Ullah, Marappan Velusamy, Paul L. Burn, Paul Meredith and Almantas Pivrikas

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300954

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      The injection-charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (i-CELIV) methodology is used in a metal-insulator-semiconductor configuration (MIS-CELIV) to selectively measure electron and hole mobilities in poly[N-9′′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) blends. It is shown that balanced mobilities are not a necessity in thin, high-efficiency organic solar cells.

    3. Lithiation-Induced Dilation Mapping in a Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode by 3D X-Ray Microscopy and Digital Volume Correlation

      David S. Eastwood, Vladimir Yufit, Jeff Gelb, Allen Gu, Robert S. Bradley, Stephen J. Harris, Daniel J. L. Brett, Nigel P. Brandon, Peter D. Lee, Philip J. Withers and Paul R. Shearing

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300506

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      Microscopic lithiation strains inside an operational lithium-ion battery are quantified in 3D using X-ray microscopy, digital volume correlation, and grain-by-grain tracking. Non-uniform lithiation is linked to electrical transport limitations established by electrochemical impedance studies.

    4. Atomic Layer Deposition of Highly Transparent Platinum Counter Electrodes for Metal/Polymer Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Diana Garcia-Alonso, Valerio Zardetto, Adriaan J. M. Mackus, Francesca De Rossi, Marcel A. Verheijen, Thomas M. Brown, Wilhelmus M. M. Kessels and Mariadriana Creatore

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300831

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      Atomic layer deposition is successfully used to fabricate a highly transparent layer of platinum nanoparticles to serve as an efficient counter electrode in flexible titanium-based dye-sensitized solar cells. These counter electrodes improve the performance of devices, which are usually prepared with electrodeposited or sputtered platinum layers.

    5. Evaluation of Built-In Potential and Loss Mechanisms at Contacts in Organic Solar Cells: Device Model Parameterization, Validation, and Prediction

      Bo Liu, Rui-Qi Png, Jun-Kai Tan and Peter K. H. Ho

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200972

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      Accurate simulation of the current–voltage characteristics of organic solar cells through direct measurement of their built-in potential to decouple other electrical parameters is discussed. The results reveal energy-level alignment diagrams, loss mechanisms due to contacts, and general design rules relating to charge carrier mobilities and the photoactive layer thickness.

  9. Research News

    1. Top of page
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    4. Masthead
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      Iron-Oxide-Based Advanced Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Lei Zhang, Hao Bin Wu and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300958

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      Recent research progress in the rational design and synthesis of various iron oxide-based nanomaterials as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is summarized. General guidelines for developing iron oxide-based advanced electrodes are provided, with an emphasis on the importance of proper structural and compositional engineering.

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