Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 5

April 2, 2014

Volume 4, Issue 5

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Communications
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      Batteries: Stretchable Silver-Zinc Batteries Based on Embedded Nanowire Elastic Conductors (Adv. Energy Mater. 5/2014)

      Chaoyi Yan, Xu Wang, Mengqi Cui, Jiangxin Wang, Wenbin Kang, Ce Yao Foo and Pooi See Lee

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470020

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In article number 1301396 Pooi See Lee and co-workers report a stretchable silver-zinc battery embedded in an elastomer matrix. The two strips based on embedded nanowire elastic conductors represent the battery cathode (silver) and anode (zinc), which can be stretched up to 80% strain while maintaining proper functionalities. The novel soft battery holds great promise for future wearable and stretchable electronic applications.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Communications
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      Solar Cells: A Depletion-Free, Ionic, Self-Assembled Recombination Layer for Tandem Polymer Solar Cells (Adv. Energy Mater. 5/2014)

      Jinho Lee, Hongkyu Kang, Jaemin Kong and Kwanghee Lee

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470021

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      In article number 1301226, Kwanghee Lee and co-workers report an innovative method by which to achieve depletion-free recombination layers composed of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and a nonconjugated polyelectrolyte via ionic self-assembly. These recombination layers form tunnel junctions with different work functions on each of their surfaces. The tandem solar cells incorporating these recombination layers are reported to exhibit solar power conversion efficiencies of greater than 8.3%.

  3. Back Cover

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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
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      Electrodes: Tortuosity Anisotropy in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes (Adv. Energy Mater. 5/2014)

      Martin Ebner, Ding-Wen Chung, R. Edwin García and Vanessa Wood

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470024

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A systematic study of lithium ion battery electrode microstructure is carried out using X-ray tomography and numerical diffusion simulations. Fabrication-induced alignment of non-spherical particles is found to cause tortuosity anisotropy, which can have a significant impact battery performance. In article number 1301278, Vanessa Wood and co-workers demonstrate that tortuosity can be easily and accurately predicted based on a simple electron microscopy based assessment of particle shapes and the differential effective medium approximation.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 5/2014)

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470023

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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      Contents: (Adv. Energy Mater. 5/2014)

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470022

  6. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Communications
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    1. You have free access to this content
      Coated Lithium Powder (CLiP) Electrodes for Lithium-Metal Batteries

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400406

      This article corrects:

      Coated Lithium Powder (CLiP) Electrodes for Lithium-Metal Batteries

      Vol. 4, Issue 5, Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Communications
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    1. Decacyclene Triimides: Paving the Road to Universal Non-Fullerene Acceptors for Organic Photovoltaics

      Toan V. Pho, Francesca M. Toma, Bertrand J. Tremolet de Villers, Sarah Wang, Neil D. Treat, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Gregory M. Su, Robert C. Coffin, Jessica D. Douglas, Jean M. J. Fréchet, Guillermo C. Bazan, Fred Wudl and Michael L. Chabinyc

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301007

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      A novel n-type material, an alkylated decacyclene triimide (DTI), is utilized in organic photovoltaic devices as the first non-fullerene acceptor that performs efficiently with the benchmark donor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as well as various narrow band gap polymers.

    2. Stretchable Silver-Zinc Batteries Based on Embedded Nanowire Elastic Conductors

      Chaoyi Yan, Xu Wang, Mengqi Cui, Jiangxin Wang, Wenbin Kang, Ce Yao Foo and Pooi See Lee

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301396

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Stretchable silver-zinc batteries are fabricated based on silver nanowires embedded in elastomer matrix, which provides unique dual functionalities. The stretchable batteries can maintain their performances even in highly stretched states (80% strain).

    3. Flexible Self-Charging Power Cell for One-Step Energy Conversion and Storage

      Xinyu Xue, Ping Deng, Bin He, Yuxin Nie, Lili Xing, Yan Zhang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301329

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      Flexible self-charging power cells (SCPCs) are fabricated from flexible graphene electrodes and Kapton shells. The cells can be charged from 500 to 832 mV within 500 s by periodic compressive stress (34 N, 1 Hz). The flexible SCPC can be efficiently charged from a small amount of mechanical energy, such as by finger pressing or a bicycle tire rolling.

    4. Tortuosity Anisotropy in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

      Martin Ebner, Ding-Wen Chung, R. Edwin García and Vanessa Wood

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301278

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A systematic experimental study of lithium-ion battery porous electrode microstructures using synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy finds particle shape and fabrication-induced alignment to cause tortuosity anisotropy, which can impact battery performance. Tortuosity anisotropy is demonstrated to be easily predicted based on simple electron microscopy assessment of particle shapes and the differential effective medium approximation.

    5. A Depletion-Free, Ionic, Self-Assembled Recombination Layer for Tandem Polymer Solar Cells

      Jinho Lee, Hongkyu Kang, Jaemin Kong and Kwanghee Lee

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301226

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An innovative method for achieving depletion-free recombination layers (RLs) in inverted tandem polymer solar cells is demonstrated using ionic self-assembly of a cationic non-conjugated polyelectrolyte and an anionic metallic polymer. These RLs form tunnel junctions with different work functions of 5.1 eV and 3.9 eV on each of their surfaces. The tandem solar cells containing these RLs exhibit solar power conversion efficiencies exceeding 8.3%.

    6. Separator/Electrode Assembly Based on Thermally Stable Polymer for Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries

      Jung-Je Woo, Zhengcheng Zhang and Khalil Amine

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301208

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      A separator/electrode assembly (SEA) is prepared using a simple coating and dry phase inversion. The SEA offers a lithium ion battery with high thermal stability and excellent cycling and power capability, which makes it attractive for the high-energy, high-power Li-ion batteries that are being developed for electric vehicle applications.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Correction
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Coated Lithium Powder (CLiP) Electrodes for Lithium-Metal Batteries

      Jennifer Heine, Steffen Krüger, Christoph Hartnig, Ulrich Wietelmann, Martin Winter and Peter Bieker

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300815

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electrodes made of coated lithium powder particles (CLiP) have the advantage that they suppress dendrite formation. Due to a higher surface area, the effective current density on the electrode surface is much lower compared to lithium metal. This fact makes lithium powder particles safer than the commonly used lithium metal foil for applications in lithium metal cells.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Coated Lithium Powder (CLiP) Electrodes for Lithium-Metal Batteries

      Vol. 4, Issue 5, Version of Record online: 2 APR 2014

    2. Improving Structural Order for a High-Performance Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Polymer Solar Cell with a Thick Active Layer

      Jing Gao, Letian Dou, Wei Chen, Chun-Chao Chen, Xuanrong Guo, Jingbi You, Brion Bob, Wei-Hsuan Chang, Joseph Strzalka, Cheng Wang, Gang Li and Yang Yang

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300739

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      By replacing branched side chains with linear side chains, a polymer system used in solar cells acquires enhanced structural order and carrier mobility. The power conversion efficiences (PCEs) of single-junction devices incorporating these polymers are improved from ≈5% to almost 7%, and the devices based on the polymers containing linear side chains show excellent photovoltaic performance with a thick active layer of up to 360 nm, making them promising for industrial implementation.

    3. Understanding the Morphology of PTB7:PCBM Blends in Organic Photovoltaics

      Feng Liu, Wei Zhao, John R. Tumbleston, Cheng Wang, Yu Gu, Dong Wang, Alejandro L. Briseno, Harald Ade and Thomas P. Russell

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301377

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      The morphological features of organic photovoltaic blends based on the low band gap polymer PTB7 are characterized using high power techniques. The additive in the processing solvent fundamentally changes the film-forming process and leads to a multi-length-scale morphology. In bilayer diffusion experiments, it is observed that weak crystallites of PTB7 can be dissolved by phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) diffusion.

    4. Enhancement of VOC without Loss of JSC in Organic Solar Cells by Modification of Donor/Acceptor Interfaces

      Yufei Zhong, Akira Tada, Seiichiro Izawa, Kazuhito Hashimoto and Keisuke Tajima

      Version of Record online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301332

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      Donor and acceptor distance is enlarged by inserting an insulating layer at the interface The analysis of the equivalent circuit mode shows the energy of the charge transfer state is enhanced, while charge recombination and separation are suppressed. Doping of dye molecule in the insulating layer recovers short-circuit current (JSC) without losing the open-circuit voltage (VOC).

    5. Alkyl Chain Engineering of Solution-Processable Star-Shaped Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells

      Jie Min, Yuriy N. Luponosov, Andreas Gerl, Marina S. Polinskaya, Svetlana M. Peregudova, Petr V. Dmitryakov, Artem V. Bakirov, Maxim A. Shcherbina, Sergei N. Chvalun, Souren Grigorian, Nina Kaush-Busies, Sergei A. Ponomarenko, Tayebeh Ameri and Christoph J. Brabec

      Version of Record online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301234

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      Efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) star-shaped molecules based on a triphenylamine (TPA) core derivatized with various linear alkyl end-capping groups (methyl, ethyl, hexyl, and dodecyl) are synthesized for investigation of structure-property relationships. Solution-processed solar cells with a power conversion efficiency as high as 4.76% and a fill factor of 56% are demonstrated.

    6. Linking Vertical Bulk-Heterojunction Composition and Transient Photocurrent Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells with Solution-Processed MoOx Contact Layers

      Bertrand J. Tremolet de Villers, Roderick C. I. MacKenzie, Jacek J. Jasieniak, Neil D. Treat and Michael L. Chabinyc

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301290

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      Solution-processed molybdenum oxide (s-MoOx) interlayers are used to control the active-layer morphology in an organic solar cell. Experimentally measured and simulated time-dependent current–voltage curves can be used to identify the characteristic optoelectrical response of a cell with a charge extraction problem. These results should be helpful for characterization of bulk heterojunctions in which it is difficult to directly measure the vertical composition.

    7. Micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Membranes Prepared by Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

      Meike V. F. Schlupp, Anna Evans, Julia Martynczuk and Michel Prestat

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301383

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      Free-standing electrolyte membranes for silicon-based micro-solid oxide fuel cells are prepared using aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AA-CVD), a cost-effective thin film synthesis method that operates at atmospheric pressure. Using standard Pt electrodes, the power densities of cells with yttria-stabilized zirconia and gadolinium-doped ceria electrolytes are comparable to those reported for vacuum-based deposition techniques.

    8. Understanding the Rate Capability of High-Energy-Density Li-Rich Layered Li1.2Ni0.15Co0.1Mn0.55O2 Cathode Materials

      Xiqian Yu, Yingchun Lyu, Lin Gu, Huiming Wu, Seong-Min Bak, Yongning Zhou, Khalil Amine, Steven N. Ehrlich, Hong Li, Kyung-Wan Nam and Xiao-Qing Yang

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300950

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      In the cathode material Li1.2Ni0.15Co0.1Mn0.55O2 [0.5Li(Ni0.375Co0.25Mn0.375)O2·0.5Li2MnO3] the capacity contributed from different components and elements is elucidated and correlated with the local structure changes. The reaction kinetic characteristics for each element are been identified and differentiated. It is observed that Li2MnO3 may be the key component determining the rate capability of the Li-rich layered materials.

    9. Long-Lived, Visible-Light-Excited Charge Carriers of TiO2/BiVO4 Nanocomposites and their Unexpected Photoactivity for Water Splitting

      Mingzheng Xie, Xuedong Fu, Liqiang Jing, Peng Luan, Yujie Feng and Honggang Fu

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300995

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      The lifetimes of photogenerated charge carriers of BiVO4 may be prolonged by coupling an appropriate amount of TiO2. This is attributed to the unusual spatial transfer of visible-light-excited, high-energy electrons of BiVO4 to TiO2 and is responsible for the unexpectedly high photocatalytic activity for water splitting and pollutant degradation by the fabricated TiO2/BiVO4 nanocomposite.

    10. Influence of Thermal Annealing on PCDTBT:PCBM Composition Profiles

      Olesia Synooka, Kai-Rudi Eberhardt, Chetan Raj Singh, Felix Hermann, Gernot Ecke, Bernhard Ecker, Elizabeth von Hauff, Gerhard Gobsch and Harald Hoppe

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300981

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      Because long-term solar cell stability may be influenced by morphological reorganization, the effect of thermal annealing on bulk heterojunction solar cells composed of poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzothiadiazole (PCDTBT):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) is investigated. Using photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), Auger electron spectroscopy, and impedance spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that annealing at high temperatures leads to formation of a polymer wetting layer close to the metal electrode.

    11. Structural Changes in Li2MnO3 Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

      Jatinkumar Rana, Marian Stan, Richard Kloepsch, Jie Li, Gerhard Schumacher, Edmund Welter, Ivo Zizak, John Banhart and Martin Winter

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300998

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      Structural changes in Li2MnO3 provide evidence for the unusual electrochemical processes such as Li+-H+ exchange and the participation of oxygen anions in redox reactions. The observed decline in the electrochemical performance of the material upon cycling, mainly attributed to the Li+-H+ exchange and associated structural changes, also provides a global explanation for the reported cycling behavior of Li2MnO3-containing Li-rich cathode materials.

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