Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 6

April 22, 2014

Volume 4, Issue 6

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Communications
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      Electrodes: Advanced Extremely Durable 3D Bifunctional Air Electrodes for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2014)

      Dong Un Lee, Ja-Yeon Choi, Kun Feng, Hey Woong Park and Zhongwei Chen

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470025

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      Advanced air electrodes composed of cobalt oxide nanowire arrays grown directly onto stainless steel mesh current collectors, reported by Zhongwei Chen and co-workers in article number 1301389, show remarkable rechargeable zinc-air battery performance. Specifically, the electrode shows bifunctional activity towards both the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, demonstrating up to 600 h of cycling stability utilizing air under ambient conditions. This paves the way for the application of this promising battery technology in electric vehicles, smart-grid scale energy storage, and portable electronics.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
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      Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Substituting TiCl4–Carbon Nanohorn Interfaces for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2014)

      Rubén Casillas, Fabian Lodermeyer, Rubén D. Costa, Maurizio Prato and Dirk M. Guldi

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470026

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      A strategy to introduce semiconducting and mesoporous carbon nanohorns as interlayers in the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells, without affecting the overall performance, is reported by Dirk M. Guldi and co-workers in article number 1301577. This provides an easy, clean, and ecofriendly alternative to achieve highefficiency solar cells.

  3. Back Cover

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      Optoelectronic Devices: Low-Temperature Combustion-Synthesized Nickel Oxide Thin Films as Hole-Transport Interlayers for Solution-Processed Optoelectronic Devices (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2014)

      Sai Bai, Motao Cao, Yizheng Jin, Xinliang Dai, Xiaoyong Liang, Zhizhen Ye, Min Li, Jipeng Cheng, Xuezhang Xiao, Zhongwei Wu, Zhouhui Xia, Baoquan Sun, Ergang Wang, Yueqi Mo, Feng Gao and Fengling Zhang

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470030

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      A solution-combustion strategy based on aqueous precursors is developed to fabricate nickel oxide (NiOx) thin films with excellent optical transparency, flat surface features, and a high work function. As reported by Yizheng Jin, Baoquan Sun, Feng Gao, and co-workers in article number 1301460, these are promising candidates for hole-transporting and electron-blocking interlayers in solution-processed optoelectronic devices.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2014)

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470029

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Communications
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      Contents: (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2014)

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470027

  6. Progress Reports

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    1. Nanocarbon Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Media for Advanced Energy Conversion and Storage

      Qing Li, Ruiguo Cao, Jaephil Cho and Gang Wu

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301415

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      The development of highly efficient catalysts from earth-abundant elements rather than precious metals is crucial for advanced electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies. Recent breakthroughs in the nanocarbon composite cathode catalysts in alkaline-based fuel cells and metal-air batteries are summarized and guidance for the rational design and synthesis of advanced catalysts with improved activity and performance durability is presented.

  7. Communications

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    1. Substituting TiCl4–Carbon Nanohorn Interfaces for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Rubén Casillas, Fabian Lodermeyer, Rubén D. Costa, Maurizio Prato and Dirk M. Guldi

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301577

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An easy-to-implement strategy to introduce carbon nanohorns as interlayers in the photoelectrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell without affecting its overall performance is presented. This provides a clean, easy, and ecofriendly alternative to achieve highly efficient cells.

    2. A Facile Method to Enhance Photovoltaic Performance of Benzodithiophene-Isoindigo Polymers by Inserting Bithiophene Spacer

      Zaifei Ma, Dongfeng Dang, Zheng Tang, Desta Gedefaw, Jonas Bergqvist, Weiguo Zhu, Wendimagegn Mammo, Mats R. Andersson, Olle Inganäs, Fengling Zhang and Ergang Wang

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301455

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      A series of conjugated polymers containing benzodithiophene as donor and isoindigo as acceptor with no, one, two and three thiophene spacer groups is synthesized and characterized. The polymer with bithiophene as a spacer has a superior efficiency of 7.31% in solar cells. This demonstrates an important design strategy to produce polymers for high-performance solar cells by inserting thiophene spacer groups.

    3. Oxygen- and Water-Based Degradation in [6,6]-Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM) Films

      Qinye Bao, Xianjie Liu, Slawomir Braun and Mats Fahlman

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301272

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      Effects of in situ oxygen/water exposure on the energetics of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) films are presented. For oxygen exposure, the work function is downshifted by ≈0.15 eV compared to the ideal integer charge transfer (ICT) curve for pristine PCBM, which is incompatible with significant introduction of electron trap states or p-doping. Water induces the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) structure to undergo strong, irreversible modifications accompanied by a chemical interaction with PCBM.

    4. Advanced Extremely Durable 3D Bifunctional Air Electrodes for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries

      Dong Un Lee, Ja-Yeon Choi, Kun Feng, Hey Woong Park and Zhongwei Chen

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301389

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A very practical, 3D air electrode architecture based on a bifunctional cobalt oxide nanowire array that is active towards both the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions is introduced. This advanced carbon- and binder-free electrode exhibits remarkable electrochemical durability, with 600 h of operation under ambient conditions in a rechargeable zinc-air battery.

    5. Charge Transport Orthogonality in All-Polymer Blend Transistors, Diodes, and Solar Cells

      Simone Fabiano, Scott Himmelberger, Martin Drees, Zhihua Chen, Rashid M. Altamimi, Alberto Salleo, Maria Antonietta Loi and Antonio Facchetti

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301409

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      Polymer aggregation and phase separation of polymer–polymer blends are effectively tuned from self-stratified to laterally phase-separated by adjusting the relative solubility of the two polymers in the mixture. This is found to dramatically alter the charge transport characteristics from a preferential in-plane to an out-of-plane direction, revealing the critical dependence of the resulting device performance on the film morphology and structure of the active layer.

    6. Effect of Molecular Order on the Performance of Naphthobisthiadiazole-Based Polymer Solar Cells

      Yanming Sun, Jason Seifter, Ming Wang, Louis A. Perez, Chan Luo, Guillermo C. Bazan, Fei Huang, Yong Cao and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301601

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      The influence of fullerene derivatives (PC60BM and PC70BM) and processing additives on the molecular order of a naphthobisthiadiazole-based polymer (NT) in the blend films differ significantly. This is strongly associated with the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell performance and affects charge recombination rates and sweep-out dynamics.

    7. Low-Temperature Combustion-Synthesized Nickel Oxide Thin Films as Hole-Transport Interlayers for Solution-Processed Optoelectronic Devices

      Sai Bai, Motao Cao, Yizheng Jin, Xinliang Dai, Xiaoyong Liang, Zhizhen Ye, Min Li, Jipeng Cheng, Xuezhang Xiao, Zhongwei Wu, Zhouhui Xia, Baoquan Sun, Ergang Wang, Yueqi Mo, Feng Gao and Fengling Zhang

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301460

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A method to deposit NiOx thin films by employing combustion reactions is reported and a low processing temperature of 175 °C is demonstrated. The resulting NiOx films exhibit high work functions, excellent optical transparency, and flat surface features. The NiOx thin films are employed as hole-transport interlayers in organic solar cells and polymer light-emitting diodes, exhibiting superior electrical properties.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Enhanced Device Efficiency of Bilayered Inverted Organic Solar Cells Based on Photocurable P3HTs with a Light-Harvesting ZnO Nanorod Array

      Sehwan Kim, Joo Hwan Koh, Xu Yang, Won Seok Chi, Chihyun Park, Jung Woo Leem, Byeonggwan Kim, Seogjae Seo, Yuna Kim, Jae Su Yu, Jong Hak Kim and Eunkyoung Kim

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301338

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      Zinc oxide nanorods (P-ZnO NR) are patterned and applied in inverted organic photovoltaic devices (IOPV) as an electron transport buffer layer (ETBL) for the light harvesting effect. A 16% increase in device performance and long operational stability is observed resulting from the introduction of a periodically patterned zinc oxide nanorod layer, and the formation of photoactive layer consisting of photo-crosslinkable methacylate end-functionalized poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT-MA) and phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) with indene-C60 bis-adduct (IC60BA).

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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      Supercapacitors: Achieving High Rate Performance in Layered Hydroxide Supercapacitor Electrodes (Adv. Energy Mater. 6/2014)

      Xu Wang, Chaoyi Yan, Afriyanti Sumboja, Jian Yan and Pooi See Lee

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470028

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      Layered hydroxides are promising supercapacitor electrode materials, but they generally exhibit poor energy storage abilities at high current densities. In article number 1301240, Pooi See Lee and co-workers report using chemical treatment to cause the Al in the Ni-Co-Al layered hydroxide sheets to be selectively etched by OH- anions, producing random defects on the Ni-Co-Al layered hydroxide sheets. Meanwhile, part of the less conducting Co2+ is oxidized into more conductive Co3+. The etched layered hydroxides show enhanced electrical conductivity and much better electrochemical performance.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Achieving High Rate Performance in Layered Hydroxide Supercapacitor Electrodes

      Xu Wang, Chaoyi Yan, Afriyanti Sumboja, Jian Yan and Pooi See Lee

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301240

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      The electrochemically redox-active, transition-metal-containing hydroxides (Co and Ni) have high specific capacitances, which are favorable for high energy density storage. However, the intrinsic low electric conductivity restricts the performance at high power densities. Simple chemical treatment of Ni-Co-Al layered hydroxides in alkaline solution greatly enhanced the electrochemcial performance at high current densities.

    2. Ionic Liquid–Sulfolane Composite Electrolytes for High-Performance and Stable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

      Magdalena Marszalek, Francine Duriaux Arendse, Jean-David Decoppet, Saeed Salem Babkair, Azhar Ahmad Ansari, Sami S. Habib, Mingkui Wang, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin and Michael Grätzel

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301235

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      Plasticized ionic melts for dye-sensitized solar cell applications are presented. The addition of sulfolane to eutectic ionic liquids forms new electrolytes for highly efficient and stable dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices fabricated with such electrolytes are promising for outdoor applications in hot desert climate conditions.

    3. The TiO2–Catechol Complex: Coupling Type II Sensitization with Efficient Catalysis of Water Oxidation

      Zion Tachan, Idan Hod and Arie Zaban

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301249

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      The role of TiO2-catechol type II charge transfer complex in the photoelectrochemical water oxidation is investigated. The formation of the TiO2–catechol complex expands the spectral response of the system far into the visible region. Additionally, the complex serves as a hole reservoir that catalyzes the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction.

    4. Supercapacitor Electrodes Obtained by Directly Bonding 2D MoS2 on Reduced Graphene Oxide

      Edney Geraldo da Silveira Firmiano, Adriano C. Rabelo, Cleocir J. Dalmaschio, Antonio N. Pinheiro, Ernesto C. Pereira, Wido H. Schreiner and Edson Robeto Leite

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301380

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      Investigation of MoS2 synthesized on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) reveals that the first layers are directly bonded on to oxygen groups of the RGO surface, resulting in good supercapacitive properties. These results provide an important step toward application of this system as a supercapacitor, demonstrating that it is possible to improve supecapacitive properties by controlling the MoS2 concentration.

    5. Synthesis and Characterization of Lithium Bis(fluoromalonato)borate for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

      Chen Liao, Kee Sung Han, Loïc Baggetto, Daniel A. Hillesheim, Radu Custelcean, Eun-Sung Lee, Bingkun Guo, Zhonghe Bi, De-en Jiang, Gabriel M. Veith, Edward W. Hagaman, Gilbert M. Brown, Craig Bridges, M. Parans Paranthaman, Arumugam Manthiram, Sheng Dai and Xiao-Guang Sun

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301368

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      Lithium bis(fluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB) is synthesized for the first time for application in lithium ion batteries. The presence of fluorine in LiBFMB increases the oxidation potential and facilitates ion dissociation. The work presented shows that solvent has a major effect on the LiBFMB solubility as well as the surface chemistry, impedance, and cell performance in lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4)-based 5.0 V batteries.

    6. Three Dimensional Carbon Nanosheets as a Novel Catalyst Support for Enzymatic Bioelectrodes

      Yogeswaran Umasankar, D. Bradford Brooks, Billyde Brown, Zhiguo Zhou and Ramaraja P. Ramasamy

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301306

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      A high performance enzymatic cathode material based on a carbon nanosheet support exhibits high electron transfer properties and good O2 reduction electrocatalysis. The enhanced electron transfer kinetics are made possible by the graphene edge planes and the ability of carbon nanosheets to transfer electrons from the enzyme to the current collector.

    7. Benign Solutions and Innovative Sequential Annealing Processes for High Performance Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 Photovoltaics

      Chia-Jung Hsu, Hsin-Sheng Duan, Wenbing Yang, Huanping Zhou and Yang Yang

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301287

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      Combining fully dissolved copper and zinc/tin hydrazinium constituents in an ethanolamine and dimethylsulfoxide solution mixture results in formation of a Cu2ZnSnS4 precursor in which all solutes are intermixed on the molecular scale. Sequential annealing steps under chalcogen vapor allow for enhanced grain growth while preventing the back contact from forming an excessively thick Mo(S,Se)2 layer. The resulting devices achieve power conversion efficiencies of 7.5%.

    8. Broadband Vibrational Energy Harvesting Based on a Triboelectric Nanogenerator

      Jin Yang, Jun Chen, Ya Yang, Hulin Zhang, Weiqing Yang, Peng Bai, Yuanjie Su and Zhong Lin Wang

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301322

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      A 3D triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is designed to harvest random vibrational energy in an ambient environment. The device is able to scavenge vibrational energy in the out-of-plane direction, with an extremely wide working bandwidth of 75 Hz, and arbitrary in-plane directions with a bandwidth of 14.4 Hz. This expands the applications of TENG in environmental/infrastructure monitoring and charging portable electronics.

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