Advanced Energy Materials

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 9

June 24, 2014

Volume 4, Issue 9

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Energy Storage: Large-Area Rolled-Up Nanomembrane Capacitor Arrays for Electrostatic Energy Storage (Adv. Energy Mater. 9/2014)

      Ravikant Sharma, Carlos César Bof Bufon, Daniel Grimm, Robert Sommer, Arndt Wollatz, Jörg Schadewald, Dominic J. Thurmer, Pablo F. Siles, Martin Bauer and Oliver G. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470043

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      Miniaturization of electronic devices and reduction of their footprint areas are essential ingredients towards efficient development of energy autonomous systems. In article number 1301631, César Bof Bufon, Daniel Grimm, and co-workers demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating ultracompact energy storage elements employing rolled-up nanotechnology. They highlight the flexibility and high yield of the parallel fabrication process, which results in a substantial reduction in the device dimensions and better integration of the devices into future miniaturized autonomous systems.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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      Solar Cells: Paper-Based Anti-Reflection Coatings for Photovoltaics (Adv. Energy Mater. 9/2014)

      Dongheon Ha, Zhiqiang Fang, Liangbing Hu and Jeremy N. Munday

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470044

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      In article number 1301804, Jeremy N. Munday and co-workers describe the use of a plant-based cellulose fiber paper as advanced antireflection coatings for solar cells. These coatings provide broadband, angle-independent optical response using a simple and inexpensive fabrication process. Additionally, these cellulose materials are lightweight, flexible, and recyclable, making them highly attractive materials for environmentally friendly production.

  3. Back Cover

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      Water Oxidation Electrocatalysts: Ni-Based Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation Developed In-Situ in a HCO3/CO2 System at Near-Neutral pH (Adv. Energy Mater. 9/2014)

      Khurram Saleem Joya, Yasir F. Joya and Huub J. M. de Groot

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470048

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      As reported by Khurram Saleem Joya, and co-workers in article number 1301929, nickel-oxide nanoworm-structured electrocatalysts generated in situ from neutral bicarbonate system show remarkable stability and efficiency, in addition to high anodic water oxidation current densities at moderate overpotential. The study provides a good starting point for the design of robust nanostructured materials based on self-assembled electrocatalytic systems for the direct conversion of solar energy to generate chemical feedstock and clean fuels for a sustainable future.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Adv. Energy Mater. 9/2014)

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470047

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Communications
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      Contents: (Adv. Energy Mater. 9/2014)

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470045

  6. Progress Reports

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    1. Are Binary Copper Sulfides/Selenides Really New and Promising Thermoelectric Materials?

      Gilles Dennler, Radoslaw Chmielowski, Stéphane Jacob, Frédéric Capet, Pascal Roussel, Sebastian Zastrow, Kornelius Nielsch, Ingo Opahle and Georg K. H. Madsen

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301581

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      Copper sulfides and copper selenides have recently been reported as new and promising low-cost and environmentally friendly thermoelectric materials. It is shown that these materials have actually been studied for more than 190 years. The absence of commercial thermoelectric modules based on them stems from some major intrinsic issues related to these chalcogenides. Further developing these semiconductors will require addressing and solving these problems before large scale utilization can be considered.

  7. Communications

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    1. Anisotropy of the Electrocaloric Effect in Lead-Free Relaxor Ferroelectrics

      Florian Le Goupil, Anna-Karin Axelsson, Lawrence J. Dunne, Matjaz Valant, George Manos, Tadeusz Lukasiewicz, Jan Dec, Andrey Berenov and Neil McN. Alford

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301688

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      The highly anisotropic electrocaloric effect, evidenced by both direct measurements and a descriptive theoretical model in lead-free relaxor ferroelectric Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 single crystals, can be exploited by producing low-cost grain-oriented ceramics. Combined with the broad-temperature-range cooling regime provided by their polar nanoregions, these materials may be the key to future cost- and energy-efficient solid-state refrigeration.

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      Dielectric Modification of 5V-Class Cathodes for High-Voltage All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

      Chihiro Yada, Akihiro Ohmori, Kazuto Ide, Hisatsugu Yamasaki, Takehisa Kato, Toshiya Saito, Fumihiro Sagane and Yasutoshi Iriyama

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301416

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      A “5V-class” all-solid-state lithium battery (Li/Li3.2PO3.8N0.2/LiCr0.05Ni0.45Mn1.5O4-δ) demonstrates an improved rate capability when its electrolyte/cathode interface is modified by dielectric BaTiO3 nanoparticles. Such “dielectric modification” is supposed to be able to resolve a Li+-deficient layer at the interface, which has limited the charge-transfer reactions rates.

    3. A General Route to Enhance Polymer Solar Cell Performance using Plasmonic Nanoprisms

      Kai Yao, Michael Salvador, Chu-Chen Chueh, Xu-Kai Xin, Yun-Xiang Xu, Dane W. deQuilettes, Ting Hu, Yiwang Chen, David S. Ginger and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400206

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      By embedding various types of colloidal silver nanoprisms into both interfacial layers, significant and general enhancement in the device performances of multiple polymer solar cell systems is demonstrated. The increased device efficiencies are due to the cooperative optical enhancement, resulting in enhanced short-circuit current densities. These results provide a powerful, general, and tunable means to enhance light harvesting at desired wavelength bands in existing and emerging organic photovoltaic materials.

    4. Multidimensional ZnO Architecture for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with High-Efficiency up to 7.35%

      Xin-Hong Lu, Yan-Zhen Zheng, Shi-Qing Bi, Yuan Wang, Xia Tao, Liming Dai and Jian-Feng Chen

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301802

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      A multidimensional ZnO photoanode consisting of a 2D-nanosheet tuned 3D-aggregate film and a 0D-nanocrystallite compact layer is developed and found to simultaneously possess large surface area, effective electron transport, and strong light-scattering capability. This leads to a remarkable efficiency of 7.35%, which is among the world records for ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs).

    5. Ni-Based Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation Developed In-Situ in a HCO3/CO2 System at Near-Neutral pH

      Khurram Saleem Joya, Yasir F. Joya and Huub J. M. de Groot

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301929

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      Electrochemically generated NiOx nanoworms from a neutral bicarbonate system split water into dioxygen and protons with tremendous efficiency and stability. The NiOx electrocatalyst follows a pH-potential dependence, revealing a PCET (proton coupled electron transfer) mechanism of one electron and one proton oxidation. It does not require proton abstracting phosphate or borate buffers for electrogeneration and catalysis, and shows promising activity for anodic oxidation of water in phosphate, borate, and carbonate buffers.

    6. n-Si–Organic Inversion Layer Interfaces: A Low Temperature Deposition Method for Forming a p–n Homojunction in n-Si

      Ann S. Erickson, Arava Zohar and David Cahen

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301724

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      The built-in voltage of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)–nSi hybrid solar cells is demonstrated to indicate strong inversion over most substrate donor concentrations. This implies a p–n homojunction, induced in the Si surface by the high work function of the top contact. This induced homojunction is then used to form the source and drain electrodes in a field-effect transistor.

    7. An Alternative Hole Transport Layer for Both ITO- and Graphene-Based Organic Solar Cells

      Hyesung Park and Jing Kong

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301280

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      A new type of hole transport layer, polythiophene derivative, for organic solar cells is introduced, which shows similar transparency and good wettability for both indium tin oxide (ITO) and graphene compared to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Efficient graphene-based organic solar cells are demonstrated and shows power conversion efficiencies approaching those of ITO-based reference devices using the proposed hole transport layer.

    8. Dip-Coated Gold Nanoparticle Electrodes for Aqueous-Solution-Processed Large-Area Solar Cells

      Xiaohang Du, Zhaolai Chen, Zibo Li, Hongxia Hao, Qingsen Zeng, Chunwei Dong and Bai Yang

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400135

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      A solution-processed gold nanoparticle (NP) top electrode is investigated for large-area solar cells. The large-area gold NP film is obtained using a dip-coating technique. The gold NP film shows an extremely low electric resistance of 2 Ω/◻. All-solution-processed solar cells are also fabricated with an optimized power conversion efficiency of 1.71%

    9. Paper-Based Anti-Reflection Coatings for Photovoltaics

      Dongheon Ha, Zhiqiang Fang, Liangbing Hu and Jeremy N. Munday

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301804

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      A new paper-based anti-reflection coating for solar cells is presented showing a large reduction in the reflection over the entire solar spectrum for a wide range of angles. This process is simple and inexpensive, requiring no high temperature or vacuum-based processing, and is made from renewable cellulose fibers.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Titanium Dioxide Mesoporous Electrodes for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Cross-Analysis of the Critical Parameters

      Silvia Colella, Emanuele Orgiu, Ingmar Bruder, Andrea Liscio, Vincenzo Palermo, Bernd Bruchmann, Paolo Samorì and Peter Erk

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301362

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      Cross-physico-chemical and electrical characterization of four TiO2 electrodes is performed, with the purpose of evaluating the oxide properties on the real device scale and finding a correlation with the photovoltaic performances of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSSCs). In particular, capacitance measurements and surface potential determination are proposed as an effective, straight, and simple method to screen and select the most suitable mesoporous anode.

    2. Phase Transformation Induced Capacitance Activation for 3D Graphene-CoO Nanorod Pseudocapacitor

      Yun Guang Zhu, Ye Wang, Yumeng Shi, Zhi Xiang Huang, Lin Fu and Hui Ying Yang

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301788

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      An ex situ method demonstrates that the capacity increase of cobalt oxide nanorod cluster on 3D graphene (CoO-3DG) pseudocapacitors is due to phase transformation from nanorods to nanoflowers with a valence change of Co. This evidence could help to understand the activation process phenomenon in metal oxide pseudocapacitors.

    3. Rotating-Disk-Based Direct-Current Triboelectric Nanogenerator

      Chi Zhang, Tao Zhou, Wei Tang, Changbao Han, Limin Zhang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301798

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      A direct-current triboelectric nano­generator (DC-TENG) based on a rotating disk design for harvesting rotational mechanical energy is reported. With two pairs of flexible electric brushes made of carbon fiber, the DC-TENG is demonstrated as a constant current source for directly and continuously driving electronic devices and/or charging an energy storage unit without a rectifier bridge.

    4. Integration of Photosystem I with Graphene Oxide for Photocurrent Enhancement

      Gabriel LeBlanc, Kevin M. Winter, William B. Crosby, G. Kane Jennings and David E. Cliffel

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301953

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      An abundant material from plants, photosystem I (PSI), is combined with graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (RGO) to generate composite films capable of improved photoelectrochemical performance on a p-doped silicon substrate.

    5. Quantitative Analysis and Visualized Evidence for High Charge Separation Efficiency in a Solid-Liquid Bulk Heterojunction

      Xin Zhao, Wenjun Luo, Jianyong Feng, Mingxue Li, Zhaosheng Li, Tao Yu and Zhigang Zou

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301785

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      Nanostructured solar cells indicate higher conversion efficiencies than planar structure ones. Quantitative analysis suggests that higher charge separation efficiency is responsible for enhanced performance by decoupling photon absorption, interfacial charge transfer, and charge separation processes. Furthermore, visualized evidence is given to show that higher charge separation efficiency comes from a shorter hole diffusion distance in a nanostructured device.

    6. Direct Growth of Flower-Like δ-MnO2 on Three-Dimensional Graphene for High-Performance Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries

      Shuangyu Liu, Yunguang Zhu, Jian Xie, Ying Huo, Hui Ying Yang, Tiejun Zhu, Gaoshao Cao, Xinbing Zhao and Shichao Zhang

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301960

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      A highly efficient 3D graphene (G) flowerlike δ-MnO2 (3D-G-MnO2) air cathode is prepared by directly growing graphene and flower-like δ-MnO2 on a skeleton of Ni foam. Li-O2 batteries with a 3D-G-MnO2 electrode can sustain 132 cycles at a capacity of 492 mAh gMnO2+carbon −1 (1000 mAh gcarbon −1) and yield an average energy density of 1350 Wh KgMnO2+carbon −1 over 110 cycles at 0.333 mA cm−2.

    7. Carbon-Coated Li3Nd3W2O12: A High Power and Low-Voltage Insertion Anode with Exceptional Cycleability for Li-Ion Batteries

      Rohit Satish, Vanchiappan Aravindan, Wong Chui Ling, John B. Goodenough and Srinivasan Madhavi

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301715

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      A low-voltage and high power garnet framework Li3Nd3W2O12 insertion anode is successfully demonstrated in a full-cell configuration with a long cycle life. The full-cell is capable of delivering very stable cycling profiles at high current rates, which clearly suggests the high power capability of such garnet-type anodes.

    8. Layer-by-Layer Solution-Processed Low-Bandgap Polymer-PC61BM Solar Cells with High Efficiency

      Pei Cheng, Jianhui Hou, Yongfang Li and Xiaowei Zhan

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301349

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      Polymer solar cells are fabricated without solvent additives using a low-bandgap polymer, PBDTTT-C-T, as the donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PC61BM) as the acceptor. After thermal annealing, layer-by-layer solution processed devices exhibit a power conversion efficiency as high as 7.13%, which is much higher than that of blend devices (4.49%), due to efficient vertical phase separation.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Progress Reports
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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      Nanostructures: Fullerene Nucleating Agents: A Route Towards Thermally Stable Photovoltaic Blends (Adv. Energy Mater. 9/2014)

      Camilla Lindqvist, Jonas Bergqvist, Ching-Chiao Feng, Stefan Gustafsson, Olof Bäcke, Neil D. Treat, Céline Bounioux, Patrik Henriksson, Renee Kroon, Ergang Wang, Anke Sanz-Velasco, Per Magnus Kristiansen, Natalie Stingelin, Eva Olsson, Olle Inganäs, Mats R. Andersson and Christian Müller

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201470046

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      In article number 1301437, Christian Müller and co-workers report the use of fullerene nucleating agents to thermally arrest the nanostructure of photovoltaic blends that are composed of a non-crystalline thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In particular C60 efficiently nucleates PCBM crystallization and reduces the size of fullerene crystals to only 200 nm. Solar cells show significantly improved thermal stability of the bulk-heterojunction nanostructure, even after annealing at an elevated temperature of 130 °C.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Fullerene Nucleating Agents: A Route Towards Thermally Stable Photovoltaic Blends

      Camilla Lindqvist, Jonas Bergqvist, Ching-Chiao Feng, Stefan Gustafsson, Olof Bäcke, Neil D. Treat, Céline Bounioux, Patrik Henriksson, Renee Kroon, Ergang Wang, Anke Sanz-Velasco, Per Magnus Kristiansen, Natalie Stingelin, Eva Olsson, Olle Inganäs, Mats R. Andersson and Christian Müller

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301437

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      Fullerene nucleating agents are used to thermally arrest the nanostructure of photovoltaic blends that comprise a non-crystalline thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In particular, C60 efficiently nucleates PCBM crystallization and reduces the size of fullerene crystals to only 200 nanometers. Solar cells show significantly improved thermal stability of the bulk-heterojunction nanostructure even after annealing at an elevated temperature of 130 °C.

    2. Controlling Solution-Phase Polymer Aggregation with Molecular Weight and Solvent Additives to Optimize Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

      Jonathan A. Bartelt, Jessica D. Douglas, William R. Mateker, Abdulrahman El Labban, Christopher J. Tassone, Michael F. Toney, Jean M. J. Fréchet, Pierre M. Beaujuge and Michael D. McGehee

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301733

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      The performance of poly(di(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-co-octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) bulk heterojunction solar cells strongly depends on the polymer molecular weight, and processing these bulk heterojunctions with a solvent additive preferentially improves the performance of low molecular weight devices. It is demonstrated that polymer aggregation in solution significantly impacts the thin-film bulk heterojunction morphology and is vital for high device performance.

    3. Unraveling Charge Separation and Transport Mechanisms in Aqueous-Processed Polymer/CdTe Nanocrystal Hybrid Solar Cells

      Lei Wang, Hai-Yu Wang, Hao-Tong Wei, Hao Zhang, Qi-Dai Chen, Huai-Liang Xu, Wei Han, Bai Yang and Hong-Bo Sun

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301882

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      Aqueous-processed hybrid solar cells consisting of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV)-based aqueous polymers and water-solution CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) are investigated. Different from their oil-soluble counterparts, the CdTe NC partly capped CdS shell layers form effective charge transport networks and play a dominant role in charge separation and carrier transport processes.

    4. Quantum-Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Hierarchical Cu2S Microspheres Wrapped by Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets as Effective Counter Electrodes

      Meidan Ye, Chang Chen, Nan Zhang, Xiaoru Wen, Wenxi Guo and Changjian Lin

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301564

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      Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-Cu2S composites composed of Cu2S microspheres wrapped by reduced graphene oxide nanosheets are fabricated via a facile solvothermal process. The addition of RGO nanosheets imparts versatile hierarchical Cu2S microspheres by varying their amount, and enhances the performance of the RGO-Cu2S counter electrode in the CdS/CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell.

    5. Nonequilibrium Charge Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells

      Ian A. Howard, Fabian Etzold, Frédéric Laquai and Martijn Kemerink

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301743

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      Nonequilibrium charge carrier dynamics play a decisive role in organic solar cell function. Multidimensional transient spectroscopic data are examined here through the lens of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations based on a minimalistic extended Gaussian disorder model. This provides important insights into the fundamental physical origins of the device-relevant nonequilibrium dynamics.

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      Large-Area Rolled-Up Nanomembrane Capacitor Arrays for Electrostatic Energy Storage

      Ravikant Sharma, Carlos César Bof Bufon, Daniel Grimm, Robert Sommer, Arndt Wollatz, Jörg Schadewald, Dominic J. Thurmer, Pablo F. Siles, Martin Bauer and Oliver G. Schmidt

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301631

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      The fabrication and optimization of large-area rolled-up ultracompact nano­membrane based capacitor arrays is demonstrated. Employing hybrid dielectric layers of HfO2 and TiO2 incorporated into an Al2O3 matrix substantially increases the capacitance per footprint area (C pa). Their electrical properties are precisely controlled by adjusting the oxide composition. The scalability is tested in parallel on a 4-inch wafer platform with 1600 devices.

    7. Enhanced Light Harvesting in Organic Solar Cells Featuring a Biomimetic Active Layer and a Self-Cleaning Antireflective Coating

      Jing-De Chen, Lei Zhou, Qing-Dong Ou, Yan-Qing Li, Su Shen, Shuit-Tong Lee and Jian-Xin Tang

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301777

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      A novel method for light manipulation in organic solar cells by patterning a biomimetic moth-eye nanostructure into the active layer and adding an antireflective coating is reported. The light harvesting of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):indene-C60 bis-adduct (P3HT:ICBA)-based solar cells is enhanced to a record efficiency of 7.86% due to the collective excitation of self-enhanced absorption by broadband polarization-insensitive light scattering, surface plasmonic resonance, and the antireflective effect.

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