This study evaluates consumer purchase propensity for genetically modified (GM) food products in Romania, shedding light on consumer preferences in developing Eastern European nations. Results based on a bivariate probit model of purchase propensity for GM sunflower oil and table potatoes show that consumers in Romania are generally opposed to GM food consumption, similar to consumers in Western Europe, but contrary to consumers in many developing nations. Purchase probabilities carry across GM foods, indicating homogeneity in consumer risk perceptions. Additionally, income levels and risk perceptions are the primary drivers of purchase decisions, whereas positive or beneficiary product attributes (e.g., health, environmental, economic) are currently not considered by consumers. Negative consumer risk perceptions of GM goods in Romania will likely make the implementation of these crops for economic development purposes difficult. [EconLit Citations: Q18, D12, O12] © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Agribusiness 23: 263–278, 2007.