This study explores the barriers that impede the adoption of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) by food processing firms in Ontario, Canada. The study identifies four broad groupings of barriers to HACCP implementation, namely perceptions that HACCP is of “questionable appropriateness” to the firm, the scale of change required to achieve implementation, low priority given to enhancement of food safety controls, and financial constraints. The severity of these identified barriers differs significantly between firms that have implemented HACCP and those that have not. In particular, HACCP implementation is impeded significantly by barriers related to financial constraints. The most important driver promoting implementation is customer requirements for HACCP to be implemented in supplier facilities. [EconLit citations: D210, L600, L660]. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.