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Keywords:

  • activated carbon;
  • adsorption;
  • sulfur mustard;
  • impregnation and diffusion

Abstract

Activated carbon of surface area 1250 m2/g was impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(VI) as CrO3 with and without 5% ethylenediamine (EDA) and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons along with active carbon were studied for the adsorption of sulfur mustard (HD) under static conditions at 30 ± 1°C. Kinetics of adsorption have been studied by using the linear driving force model (LDF) and Fickian diffusion model. The kinetic parameters, such as equilibration constant/rate constant (ka), equilibration capacity, diffusional exponent (n), and adsorbate-adsorbent interaction constant (K), have also been determined. The diffusional exponent being less than 0.5 indicates Fickian diffusion of HD molecules in the studied carbons. Chemical interaction also seems to be the second mechanism (although minor) and is involved in the HD uptake rate (the first being the Fickian diffusion). The adsorbate-adsorbent interaction constant did not vary significantly, indicating that probably HD chemically interacts to a small extent with the metal salts present on the surface of active carbon as impregnants. © 2005 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2006