• particulate flows;
  • computational fluid dynamics (CFD);
  • fluidization;
  • mathematical modeling;
  • turbulence


We use the well established core-annulus flow regime as a numerical benchmark to evaluate the sensitivity of gas–solids continuum models and boundary conditions to model formalisms and parameters. By using transient, 1D, grid-independent numerical solutions, we avoid the use of speculative closure terms and show that the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) is sufficient to model core-annulus regime. That regime arises in the time-average solution as a consequence of the fluctuating motion of regions with high solids concentration. These fluctuations are most sensitive to the gravitational acceleration (g) and granular energy dissipation terms. The fluctuation frequency is α equation image. The effect of fluctuations is so dominant that decreasing the restitution coefficient (KTGF parameter) actually increases the average granular temperature. The wall boundary conditions for solids momentum and granular energy equations dictate the core-annulus flow regime. They must cause a net dissipation of granular energy at the wall for predicting that regime. © 2007 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2007