Water network synthesis has been used to conserve water resources and reduce costs. The objective of this study was to verify the higher eco-efficiency of a water network system (WNS), and to identify principal contributors to environmental burdens and economic costs using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The WNS was compared to the conventional water system (CWS). LCA and LCC results showed that the total environmental burdens and life cycle cost of the WNS were lower than those of the CWS. The consumptions of industrial and ionized water were principal contributors to the environmental and economic burdens. The third principal contributor to the environmental burdens was electricity consumption, but that to the economic costs was piping cost. These principal contributors can be employed to obtain the simple and practical mathematical optimization models synthesizing the most environmentally friendly, economical, or sustainable WNSs. © 2007 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2007
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