• biomaterials;
  • controlled drug delivery;
  • release;
  • computer simulations (MC and MD);
  • biomedical engineering;
  • mathematical modeling


Hydrogels provide the multifunctionality of smart materials and the applicability to medical regulatory systems. Hydrogel membranes that incorporate glucose oxidase for the closed loop treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus are characterized and modeled. The Sorensen compartmental model is extended to represent the treatment system of a diabetic patient. The performance of the system closed by a hydrogel-based device is explored and compared to the dynamic behavior of a conventional scheme with an explicit controller element. Anionic and cationic hydrogels are discussed for insulin delivery application. Simulations demonstrate limitations in the range of swelling and contraction of hydrogels in a physiological environment due to the Donnan equilibrium effect. Results show the reduction of peak glucose levels and a basal insulin delivery from a hydrogel membrane system. The evaluation of ionic hydrogel membrane macrosystems prompts the consideration of detected pros and cons using different hydrogels, structures and scales. © 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2008