The influence of impact conditions (reported in terms of Weber and Reynolds numbers) on nucleus formation was studied for single drops striking a static glass bead bed. Results from high speed images showed that the nucleation rate is not influenced by liquid physical properties (density, surface tension, viscosity) for drops that spread significantly (30 < We < 233). Results also showed that nucleus size is determined by how much liquid penetrates into the bed during drop spreading, so does depend on surface tension and liquid density. A corresponding analytical model, derived from first principles, predicts nucleus size to with 1.5% using only liquid physical and powder bed properties, plus the experimentally measured drop spreading behavior. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2012
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