• MS2;
  • virus removal;
  • virus inactivation;
  • ceramic membranes;
  • microfiltration;
  • NOM


MS2 bacteriophages removal from surface water, characterized by high natural organic matter (NOM) content, was investigated by inline coagulation/flocculation pretreatment followed by ceramic microfiltration (MF). MS2 and DOC removal increased with lower pH and higher coagulant dose. Lowering the coagulant pH from 6.5 to 5.5 for polyaluminum chloride (PACl), and to 5.0 for iron chloride (FeCl), respectively, along with doubling of the coagulant dose from 2 to 4 mg Al/L, and from 4 to 8 mg Fe/L, respectively, maximized the virus removal, resulting in more than six log unit reductions up to complete virus retention. However, high residual metal concentrations were found under such conditions. Comparison of conventional two-stage coagulation pretreatment with simple inline coagulation did not show any significant performance differences. Both investigated coagulants showed virus inactivation about two log units after 60 min contact time, which is equivalent to a virus inactivation of 99%. This inactivation was only reversible to a small extend by chemical or physical floc destruction. The investigated process combination can comply with modern hygienic barrier standards. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2012