• mass and heat transfer;
  • sphere;
  • extensional flow;
  • creeping flow;
  • numerical simulation


The first detailed numerical investigation on the mass and heat transfer both outside and inside a solid or liquid sphere immersed in a simple extensional flow for a larger range of Peclet numbers (1–100,000) is presented. By making use of the known Stokes velocity field at small Reynolds numbers, a finite difference method with the control volume formulation is adopted to solve the convection-diffusion transport equation. Simulation results show that the transport rate, which is represented by Sherwood number, is significantly affected by Peclet number and viscosity ratio. The flow direction, no matter a uniaxial extensional flow or a biaxial extensional flow, has no effect on the total transport rate but affects the concentration distribution a lot. Some comparisons between present simulations and previous studies are made to validate each other and confirm the reliability and applicable scopes of reported correlations. A few new correlations are put forward to predict the transfer rate at finite Peclet numbers for various values of viscosity ratios. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 58: 3214–3223, 2012