• bubbling fluidized bed;
  • subgrid drag modification;
  • subgrid stress modifications;
  • kinetic theory-based filtered two-fluid model;
  • coarse-grid simulations;
  • computational fluid dynamics

Two different approaches to constitutive relations for filtered two-fluid models (TFM) of gas–solid flows are deduced. The first model (Model A) is derived using systematically filtered results obtained from a highly resolved simulation of a bubbling fluidized bed. The second model (Model B) stems from the assumption of the formation of subgrid heterogeneities inside the suspension phase of fluidized beds. These approaches for the unresolved terms appearing in the filtered TFM are, then, substantiated by the corresponding filtered data. Furthermore, the presented models are verified in the case of the bubbling fluidized bed used to generate the fine grid data. The numerical results obtained on coarse grids demonstrate that the computed bed hydrodynamics is in fairly good agreement with the highly resolved simulation. The results further show that the contribution from the unresolved frictional stresses is required to correctly predict the bubble rise velocity using coarse grids. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 60: 839–854, 2014