An efficient and eco-friendly solution-chemical route for preparation of ultrastable reduced graphene oxide suspensions

Authors

  • Dafang He,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Material-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Liming Shen,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Material-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Xiaoyan Zhang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Material-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Yifeng Wang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Material-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Ningzhong Bao,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Material-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Harold H. Kung

    1. Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL
    Search for more papers by this author

  • Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest associated with this work.

Abstract

We describe a facile and eco-friendly solution approach to chemically reduce graphene oxide (GO) to high-quality graphene using nontoxic inexpensive reductants. The reduction process and mechanism of a group of eco-friendly reductants were systematically studied. These reductants perform quite differently in terms of reduction rate (l-ascorbic acid [l-AA] > d-fructose > sucrose > glucose > sodium sulfite), density of small sp2 domains (l-AA > sodium sulfite > glucose > sucrose > d-fructose), degree of reduction (l-AA > glucose > d-fructose > sodium sulfite > sucrose), and stability of the reduced GO suspension (l-AA > d-fructose > sucrose > glucose > sodium sulfite). l-AA shows the highest reducing ability, achieving the largest extent of reduction after 10 min in the presence of ammonia. Both residual oxygen functionalities and the adsorbed oxidization products of l-AA on the graphene surface are responsible for stabilizing the reduced GO suspension over several months. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 60: 2757–2764, 2014

Ancillary