Global optimization for sustainable design and synthesis of algae processing network for CO2 mitigation and biofuel production using life cycle optimization



Global optimization for sustainable design and synthesis of a large-scale algae processing network under economic and environmental criteria is addressed. An algae processing network superstructure including 7800 processing routes is proposed. Based on the superstructure, a multiobjective mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model is developed to simultaneously optimize the unit cost and the unit global warming potential (GWP). To efficiently solve the nonconvex MINLP model with separable concave terms and mixed-integer fractional terms in the objective functions, a global optimization strategy that integrates a branch-and-refine algorithm based on successive piecewise linear approximations is proposed and an exact parametric algorithm based on Newton's method. Two Pareto-optimal curves are obtained for biofuel production and biological carbon sequestration, respectively. The unit annual biofuel production cost ranges from $7.02/gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) to $9.71/GGE, corresponding to unit GWP's of 26.491 to 16.52 kg CO2-eq/GGE, respectively. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 60: 3195–3210, 2014