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Abstract

A knowledge of liquid-film flow rates is important for design purposes when accurate predictions are required of the conditions under which dryout heat flux occurs in nuclear reactors and boilers. Liquid-film flow rates were measured for a steam-water mixture in cocurrent, upward annular flow in a tube at a pressure of 1,000 lb./sq.in.abs. Sinters located at the test section exit were used to extract the liquid film after the method of the Harwell group. Sinter lengths of 2, 1, and 1/2 in. were employed to investigate the effect of length on the extracted liquid flow rates. The test section was a stainless steel pipe of inside diameter 0.493 in., approximately 200 diam. in length. The total mass flux ranged from 0.2 to 0.7 × 106 lb.m/hr.sq.ft. and the quality varied from 0.3 to 0.92.

The experimental film flow rates were found to increase with decreasing quality. In the range of parameters investigated, the curves of film flow rate at constant quality vs. mass flux showed a maximum at a fixed value of steam velocity. At the same total mass flux and quality the film flow from the 1/2 in. sinter was lowest, suggesting that the crests of high amplitude roll waves overshot the sinter. Film flow rates were consistently higher than the theoretical predictions using Levy/s model. About one-third of the measured flow rates were twice as high as predicted.