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Abstract

The problem of simultaneous forced and free convection flow of a Newtonian fluid past a hot or cold horizontal flat plate is investigated by means of numerical solutions of the full equations of motion and thermal energy subject only to the Boussinesq approximation. These solutions span the parameter ranges 10 ≤ Re ≤ 100, 0.1 ≤ Pr ≤ 10, and –2.215 ≤ Gr/Re5/2 ≤ 2.215 where Re, Pr, and Gr are based on the ambient free stream fluid properties and the overall plate length l. When Gr > 0, the boundary flow near the plate surface is accelerated relative to the corresponding forced convection flow, with a resulting increase in both the local skin friction and heat transfer coefficients. When Gr < 0, the boundary flow is decelerated, the local skin friction and heat transfer are decreased, and the flow actually separates for Gr/Re5/2 < –0.8 when Pr = 0.7. In the latter circumstance, an increasing degree of upstream influence is observed as Gr/Re5/2 is further decreased.