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Abstract

Fine particles of dense, high-purity, crystalline BaTiO3were produced by flame-spray pyrolysis. A 0.5-M (Ba:Ti = 1:1) solution of barium acetate, titanium lactate, and water was aerosolized using an ultrasonic generator, and the droplets were delivered into the core of an annular diffusion flame (H2/air) reactor. For all investigated temperatures [∼1,000–∼2,000°C adiabatic], the generated powders were chemically pure, crystalline (primarily tetragonal phase with hexagonal and cubic polymorphs), and unagglomerated. At a low-flame temperature (∼1,000°C ad.), the particles produced were hollow and irregularly shaped. Particles produced at higher flame temperatures (>∼1,500°C ad.) were dense and homogeneous. Particles showed a transition from a nonspherical porous morphology to a spherical dense morphology with increasing temperature. By increasing residence time, the temperature at which particles became spherical and dense was reduced. Flame-spray pyrolysis provides a useful method for forming dense particles of high melting point materials by aerosol-phase densification.