A new model proposed for the gasification of chars and carbons incorporates features of the turbostratic nanoscale structure that exists in such materials. The model also considers the effect of initial surface chemistry and different reactivities perpendicular to the edges and to the faces of the underlying crystallite planes comprising the turbostratic structure. It may be more realistic than earlier models based on pore or grain structure idealizations when the carbon contains large amounts of crystallite matter. Shrinkage of the carbon particles in the chemically controlled regime is also possible due to the random complete gasification of crystalline planes. This mechanism can explain observations in the literature of panicle size reduction. Based on the model predictions, both initial surface chemistry and the number of stacked planes in the crystallites strongly influence the reactivity and particle shrinkage. Its test results agree well with literature data on the air-oxidation of Spherocarb and show that it accurately predicts the variation of particle size with conversion. Model parameters are determined entirely from rate measurements.