The topographic anatomy of the muscles, nerves, and arteries of the bovine female perineum



The perineal muscles and fasciae are described and illustrated, and the diaphragma urogenitalis, components of m. sphincter urethrae, and m. ischio-cavernosus are described for the first time in the cow.

The nerves of the pudendal plexus are discussed comparatively with the object of suggesting appropriate names based on their homology to the condition in other animals and man. The rami musculares to m. levator ani and m. coccygeus may originate from nn. sacrales 3 et 4, or n. pudendus, or n. rectalis caudalis. The combination of rami musculares with n. rectalis caudalis was formerly called by veterinary anatomists n. hemorrhoidalis medius, a term which should be abandoned because it is not listed in Nomina anatomica, and because it has also been applied to n. splanchnicus pelvinus in the horse. N. pudendus is large and its rami cutanei supply regio femoris caudalis as well as regio perinealis. It also gives rise to n. perinealis profundus, which supplies the genital muscles. The pudendal nerve ends by dividing into ramus mammarius and n. dorsalis clitoridis. There may be one or two nn. rectales caudales. They supply m. sphincter ani externus and adjacent parts of m. levator ani and the genital muscles.

The distribution of arteria urogenitalis (vaginalis) and a. pudenda interna are described and illustrated.