The embryonic origins of avian cephalic and cervical muscles and associated connective tissues
Article first published online: 3 FEB 2005
Copyright © 1983 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
American Journal of Anatomy
Volume 168, Issue 3, pages 257–276, November 1983
How to Cite
Noden, D. M. (1983), The embryonic origins of avian cephalic and cervical muscles and associated connective tissues. Am. J. Anat., 168: 257–276. doi: 10.1002/aja.1001680302
- Issue published online: 3 FEB 2005
- Article first published online: 3 FEB 2005
- Manuscript Accepted: 17 JUN 1983
- Manuscript Received: 21 MAR 1983
The objective of these experiments was to determine the embryonic origins of craniotacial and cervical voluntary muscles and associated connective tissues in the chick. To accomplish this, suspected primordia, including somitomeres 3–7. somites 1–7, and cephalic neural crest primordia have been transplanted from quail into chick embryos. Quail cells can be detected by the presence of a species-specific nuclear marker. The results are summarized as follows:
These results indicate that muscles associated with branchial arch skeletal structures are derived from paraxial mesoderm, as are all other voluntary muscles in the vertebrate embryo. Thus, theories of vertebrate ontogeny and phylogeny based in part on proposed unique features of branchiomeric muscles must be critically reappraised. In addition, many of these cephalic muscles are composites of two separate primordia: the myogenic stem cells of mesodermal origin and the supporting and connective tissues derived from the neural crest or lateral plate mesoderm. Defining these embryonic origins is a necessary prerequisite to understanding how the mesenchymal primordia of cephalic muscles and connective tissues interact to form patterned, species-unique musculoskeletal systems.