Afferent perikarya in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at the T13 and L1 segmental levels projecting to the rat ovary were identified by utilizing the fluorescent retrograde tracer true blue (TB). Subsequently, TB-labeled ovarian afferent perikarya in DRG were examined for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P (SP), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and somatostatin (SOM) immunoreactivity and for the presence of fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) enzyme activity. Of the ovarian afferent perikarya at the T13 and L1 segmental levels, 20.5% displayed VIP immunoreactivity, 23.8% displayed SP immunoreactivity, and 43.1% were immunoreactive for CCK-8. No ovarian afferent perikarya contained SOM or NYP immunoreactivity or FRAP activity. It is suggested that different neuropeptides may participate in modulation of specific ovarian functions.