• 1
    Pugsley W, Klinger L, Paschalis C, Treasure T, Harrison M, Newman S. The impact of microemboli during cardiopulmonary bypass on neuropsychological functioning. Stroke 1994; 25: 13931399.
  • 2
    Pugsley W, Klinger L, Paschalis C, Aspey B, Newman S, Harrison M, Treasure T. Microemboli and cerebral impairment during cardiac surgery. Vasc Surg 1990; Jan/Feb: 3443.
  • 3
    Stump DA, Rogers AT, Hammon JW, Newman SP, Phil D. Cerebral emboli and cognitive outcome after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1996; 10: 113119.
  • 4
    Stump DA. Selection and clinical significance of neuropsychologic tests. Ann Thorac Surg 1995; 59: 13401344.
  • 5
    Stump DA, Kon NA, Rogers AT, Hammon JW. Emboli and neuropsychological outcome following cardiopulmonary bypass. Echocardiography 1996; 13: (5) 555558.
  • 6
    Zucker MB, Borrelli J. Viscous metamorphosis produced by chilling and by clotting: failure to find specific defect of viscous metamorphosis in PTA syndrome. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 1960; 4: 424434.
  • 7
    Anstall HB, Hawkey CM. Observations on platelet clumping and related phenomena: a reappraisal and a clarification of terms. Transfusion 1962; 2: 4450.
  • 8
    Kattlove HE, Alexander B. The effect of cold on platelets. I. Cold-induced platelet aggregation. Blood 1971; 38: 3948.
  • 9
    Cohen IJ, Fuches J, Kaplinski C, Krugliak J, Stark B, Vogel R, Weinberger I, Rotenber Z, Agmon J, Jerushalmay Z, Zaizov R. Room temperature ADP induced first stage hyperaggregation of human blood platelets: a previously undescribed phenomenon and its relationship to spontaneous cold induced platelet aggregation. Br J Haematol 1987; 65: 331334.
  • 10
    Trenchard PM, Jeffery DM. Platelet thermophysiology: a new field of investigation dependent upon an improved sub-ambient platelet aggregometer. Clin Phys Physiol Meas 1989; 10: 6574.
  • 11
    Trenchard PM, Morgan RA. Sub-ambient aggregometry: a tool for examining platelet storage at any temperature between 4–22°C. Haemostasis 1986; 16: 352361.
  • 12
    Cohen IJ. Room temperature ADP-induced first-stage hyperaggregation of human platelets: the cause of rewarming deaths by thrombocytopenia in neonatal cold injury. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1991; 8: 6167.
  • 13
    Turitto VT, Baumgartner HR. Effects of temperature on platelet interaction with subendothelium exposed to flowing blood. Haemostasis 1974; 3: 224236.
  • 14
    Hansen TN, Brockbank KGM. Increased platelet aggregation due to chilling to 20°C is not related to increased sensitivity to agonists. Transfusion 1997; 37: 696702.
  • 15
    Silver WP, Keller MP, Teel R, Silver D. Effects of donor characteristics and platelet in vitro time and temperature on platelet aggregometry. J Vasc Surg 1993; 17: 726733.
  • 16
    Shortland AP, Rhodes NP, Rattary A, Black RA, Williams DF. The effects of temperature and shear rate on platelet aggregation. J Mater Sci Med 1997; 8: 887890.
  • 17
    Michelson AD, MacGregor H, Barnard MR, Kestin AS, Rohrer MJ, Valeri CR. Reversible inhibition of human platelet activation by hypothermia in vivo and in vitro. Thromb Haemost 1994; 71: 663640
  • 18
    Reed RL, Bracey AW, Hudson JD, Miller TA, Fischer RP. Hypothermia and blood coagulation: dissociation between enzyme activity and clotting factor levels. Circ Shock 1990; 32: 141152.
  • 19
    Yau TM, Carson S, Weisel RD, Ivanov J, Sun Z, Yu R, Glynn MFX, Teasdale SJ. The effect of warm heart surgery on postoperative bleeding. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1992; 103: 11551163.
  • 20
    Yoshihara H, Yamamoto T, Mihara H. Changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis occurring in dogs during hypothermia. Thrombosis Res 1985; 37: 503512.
  • 21
    Oliver AE, Tablin F, Walker NJ, Crow JH. The internal calcium concentration of human platelets increases during chilling. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999; 1416: 349360.
  • 22
    Ereth MH, Gregory AN, Oliver WC, Santrach PJ, Price RD, Schaff HV. Temperature and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass influence transfusion requirements. J Clin Anesth 1998; 10: 588592.
  • 23
    White JG, Rao GHR. Microtubule coils versus the surface membrane cytoskeleton in maintenance and restoration of platelet discoid shape. Am J Pathol 1998; 152: 597609.
  • 24
    Winokur R, Hartwig JH. Mechanism of shape change in chilled human platelets. Blood 1995; 85: (7) 17961804.
  • 25
    Michal F, Born GVR. Effect of the rapid shape change of platelets on the transmission and scattering of light through plasma. Nat New Biol 1971; 231: 220222.
  • 26
    Tablin F, Oliver AE, Walker NJ, Crowe LM, Crowe JH. Membrane phase transition of intact human platelets: correlation with cold-induced activation. J Cell Phys 1996; 168: 3053l3.
  • 27
    Peerschke EI, Zucker MB. Fibrinogen receptor exposure and aggregation of human blood platelets produced by ADP and chilling. Blood 1981; 57: (4) 663670.
  • 28
    Marguerie GA, Plow EF. Interaction of fibrinogen with its platelet receptor: kinetics and effect of pH and temperature. Biochemistry 1981; 20: 10741080.
  • 29
    Faraday N, Rosenfeld BA. In-vitro hypothermia enhances platelet GPIIb-IIIa activation and P-Selectin expression. Anesthesiology 1998; 88: 15791585.
  • 30
    Gonzalez-Rodriguez J, Acuna AU, Alvarez MV, Jovin TM. Rotational mobility of the fibrinogen receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa or integrin alpha IIb/beta3 in the plasma membrane of human platelets. Biochemistry 1994; 33: 266274.
  • 31
    Winters KJ, Eisenberg PR, Jaffe-Allan S, Santoro SA. Dependence of plasmin-mediated degradation of platelet adhesive receptors on temperature and Ca2+. Blood 1990; 76; (8) 15461557.
  • 32
    Solen KA, Betteridge BL. A method to “count” flow-resistant blood microemboli. In CooperSL, PeppasNA, editors. Biomaterials: Interfacial Phenomena and Applications. Advances in Chemistry Series, No. 199. Oxford: Elsevier; 1982. p 221229.
  • 33
    Neumann FJ, Marx N, Gawaz M, Brand K, Ott I, Rokitta C, Sticherling C, Meinl C, May A, Schömig A. Induction of cytokine expression in leukocytes by binding of thrombin-stimulated platelets. Circulation 1997; 95: 23872394.
  • 34
    Kuypers FA. Red cell membrane damage. J Heart Valve Dis 1998; 7: 387395.
  • 35
    Engler RL, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Pavelec RS. Leukocyte capillary plugging in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in the dog. Am J Pathol 1983; 111: 98111.
  • 36
    Lefer DJ, Shandelya SM, Serrano CV, Becker LC, Kuppusamy P, Zweier JL. Cardioprotective actions of a monoclonal antibody against CD-18 in myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury. Circulation 1993; 88: 17791787.
  • 37
    Zheng Y, Solen KA, Mohammad SF. The light-scattering whole blood aggregometer: a novel device for assessment of platelet aggregation in undiluted blood. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1998; 122: 880886.
  • 38
    Reiner AP, Siscovick DS, Rosendaal FR. Hemostatic risk factors and arterial thrombotic disease. Thromb Haemost 2001; 85: 584595.
  • 39
    Zotz RB, Winkelmann BR, Nauck M, Giers G, Maruhn-Debowski B, Marz W, Scharf RE. Polymorphism of platelet membrane glycoprotein IIIa: human platelet antigen Ib (HPA-1b/P1A2) is an inherited risk factor for premature myocardial infarction in coronary artery disease. Thromb Haemost 1998; 79: 731735.
  • 40
    Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Schmitz C, Stampfer MJ, Lindpainterner K. P1A1/A2 polymorphism of platelet glycoprotein IIIa and risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thrombosis. Lancet 1997; 349: 385388.
  • 41
    Weiss EJ, Bray PF, Tayback M, Schulman SP, Kickler TS, Becker LC, Weiss JL, Gerstenblith G, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ. A polymorphism of a platelet glycoprotein receptor as an inherited risk factor for coronary thrombosis. New Engl J Med 1996; 334: 10901094.
  • 42
    Michelson AD, Furman MI, Goldschmidt-Clermont P, Mascelli MA, Hendrix C, Coleman L, Hamlington J, Barnard MR, Kickler TK, Christie DJ, Kundu S, Bray PF. Platelet GP IIIa P1A polymorphism display different sensitivities to agonists. Circulation 2000; 101: 10131018.
  • 43
    Mathew JP, Rinder CS, Howe JG, Fontes M, Crouch J, Newman MF, Phillips-Bute B, Smith BR. Platelet P1A2 polymorphism enhances risk of neurocognitive decline after cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 71: 663666.
  • 44
    Carter AM, Catto AJ, Bamford JM, Grant PJ. Platelet GP IIIa P1A and GP Ib variable number tandem repeat polymorphisms and markers of platelet activation in acute stroke. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998; 18: 11241131.
  • 45
    Carter AM, Ossei-Gerning N, Wilson IJ, Grant PJ. Association of the platelet P1A polymorphism of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and the fibrinogen B(Beta) 448 polymorphism with myocardial infarction and extent of coronary artery disease. Circulation 1997; 96: 14241431.
  • 46
    De Paulis R, Mohammad SF, Chiariello L, Morea M, Olsen DB. The role of plasma proteins in formation of obstructive protamine complexes. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1991; 5:2 (3) 27233.
  • 47
    De Paulis R, Mohammad SF, Chiariello L, Morea M, Olsen DB. A pulmonary mock circulation model for a better understanding of protamine reversal of heparin. ASAIO Trans 1988; 34: (3) 367370.
  • 48
    Packham MA, Mustard JF. Normal and abnormal platelet activity. In: LassloA, editor. Blood platelet function and medicinal chemistry. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co.; 1984. p 61128.
  • 49
    Hawiger J, Steer ML, Salzman EW. Intracellular regulatory processes in platelets. In: ColmanRW, HirshJ, MarderVJ, SalzmanEW, editors. Hemostasis and thrombosis: basic principles and clinical practice. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company; 1987. p 716719.
  • 50
    Marcus AJ. Platelet eicosanoid metabolism. In: ColmanRW, HirshJ, MarderVJ, SalzmanEW, editors. Hemostasis and thrombosis: basic principles and clinical practice. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company; 1987. p 678681.
  • 51
    Walenga JM, Bick RL. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, paradoxical thromboembolism and other side effects of heparin therapy. In: Medical Clinics of North America, Vol. 82(3), Current Concepts of Thrombosis. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1998. p 635658.
  • 52
    Hall M, Solen KA. Hypothermia-induced platelet aggregation in human blood in an in-vitro model: the dominant role of blood–material interactions. J Biomed Mater Res (in press).