• systemic mastocytosis;
  • acute myeloid leukemia;
  • myelodysplastic syndrome;
  • c-kit;
  • mutations


The majority of patients with systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal, hematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD) have a myeloid stem cell malignancy including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorders, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), or chronic myeloproliferative disease. The clinicopathologic features of SM-AHNMD have not been fully characterized. We describe seven cases of this entity: 3 with MDS, 3 with AML, and 1 with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. In the majority of cases, SM was diagnosed concurrently with the myeloid malignancy and aberrant mast cell morphology was observed. The commonly described c-kit enzymatic site mutation Asp816Val was detected only in 2 cases, while 3 patients carried the Asp816His mutation. Among the 3 cases with AML, 2 patients carried the translocation t(8;21). On the basis of our results and other reported cases, there appears to be a specific association between SM and AML with t(8;21). Concurrent occurrence of SM may define a subset of patients with de novo AML and other myeloid malignancies who have an adverse prognosis. As clinically effective tyrosine kinase inhibitors that inhibit enzymatic-type c-kit mutations are being developed, detection of mast cell proliferation associated with myeloid malignancy may have important therapeutic implications. Am. J. Hematol. 73:12–17, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.