• antigenemia assay;
  • bone marrow transplant;
  • hematopoietic stem cell transplantation;
  • peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation;
  • bronchoscopy;
  • computerized tomography of the chest;
  • diagnosis;
  • surgical lung biopsy;
  • polymerase chain reaction;
  • pulmonary complications;
  • pulmonary function tests;
  • transthoracic needle aspirate


Pulmonary complications are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Pulmonary infiltrates in such patients pose a major challenge for clinicians because of the wide differential diagnosis of infectious and noninfectious conditions. It is rare for the diagnosis to be made by chest radiograph, and commonly these patients will need further invasive and noninvasive studies to confirm the etiology of the pulmonary infiltrates. This review describes the role of the different diagnostic tools available to reach a diagnosis in a timely manner in this patient population. Am. J. Hematol. 80:137–146, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.