Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is a rare complication in early cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. There is no standard therapy for VAHS and the clinical course is variable. Data on the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the treatment of CMV-associated VAHS are limited. We report a previously healthy, 32-year-old woman who presented with general malaise, fever, chills, and splenomegaly. Laboratory examination showed marked elevation of aminotransferase, leucopoenia, and thrombocytopenia. Acute CMV-infection was documented by the presence of immunoglobulin M anti-CMV and positive viremia in blood sample. Bone marrow examination revealed extensive hemophagocytosis. IVIG was administered after the diagnosis of CMV-associated VAHS. Her symptoms and laboratory abnormalities improved dramatically after the onset of the treatment and she did not require antiviral agent. Am. J. Hematol., 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.