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Abstract

Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) is an aggressive lymphoma. In post-transplant immunosuppressed patients, HSTL is usually rapidly fatal. We report successful treatment of post-transplant HSTL in a 50-year-old renal allograft recipient by reducing immunosuppression and using intensive chemotherapy consisting of alternating cycles of HyperCVAD (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone) and MTX/HiDAC (methotrexate, Ara-C). Remission is ongoing at 8+ years. Literature review identified another 20 cases of HSTL in solid organ transplant recipients: median survival was 4 months; no other patients survived beyond 12 months. Bone marrow involvement was universal, but changes were often subtle: 6 of 12 cases had nondiagnostic examinations earlier on. High index of suspicion may lead to more timely diagnosis of this uncommon form of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and treatment with intensive chemotherapy such as HyperCVAD may be curative. Am. J. Hematol., 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.