There is a causal association between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) gastric infection and the development of gastric MALT lymphoma. In contrast, the link between Hp gastric infection and the development of extragastric lymphoma has not been thoroughly investigated. We, therefore, studied the prevalence of gastric Hp infection at initial diagnosis of ophthalmologic and nonophthalmologic extragastric lymphoma patients. Three cohorts of patients were studied: a first one of 83 patients with OAL, a second one of 101 patients with extraophthalmologic extragastric lymphoma, and a third one of 156 control individuals (control) without malignant lymphoma. Gastric Hp infection was investigated by histopathological analysis and Hp-specific PCR assay on gastric biopsy tissue samples. We found gastric Hp infection in 37 OAL patients (45%), in 25 extraophthalmologic extragastric lymphoma cases (25%), and in 18 controls individuals (12%) (P < 0.0001 OAL/C and P < 0.01 OAL/extra-OAL cases). Gastritis was found in 51% and 9% of Hp-positive and Hp-negative lymphoma patients, respectively (P < 10−4). Gastric Hp infection only correlated with MALT/LPL lymphoma (P = 0.03). There is a significant association between gastric Hp infection and MALT/LPL OAL. This suggests a novel mechanism of indirect infection-associated lymphomagenesis whereby chronic local antigen stimulation would lead to the emergence of ectopic B-cell lymphoma. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Am. J. Hematol.