• 1
    Tefferi A,Vardiman JW. Myelodysplastic syndromes. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 18721885.
  • 2
    Garcia-Manero G,Fenaux P. Hypomethylating agents and other novel strategies in myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29: 516523.
  • 3
    Rollison DE,Howlader N,Smith MT, et al. Epidemiology of myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myeloproliferative disorders in the United States, 2001–2004, using data from the NAACCR and SEER programs. Blood 2008; 112: 4552.
  • 4
    Goldberg SL,Chen E,Corral M, et al. Incidence and clinical complications of myelodysplastic syndromes among United States Medicare beneficiaries. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 28472852.
  • 5
    Greenberg P,Cox C,LeBeau MM, et al. International scoring system for evaluating prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 1997; 89: 20792088.
  • 6
    Dayyani F,Conley AP,Strom SS, et al. Cause of death in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Cancer 2010; 116: 21742179.
  • 7
    Vardiman JW,Thiele J,Arber DA, et al. The 2008 revision of the WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: Rationale and important changes. Blood 2009; 114: 937951.
  • 8
    Haase D. Cytogenetic features in myelodysplastic syndromes. Ann Hematol 2008; 87: 515526.
  • 9
    Haase D,Germing U,Schanz J, et al. New insights into the prognostic impact of the karyotype in MDS and correlation with subtypes: Evidence from a core dataset of 2124 patients. Blood 2007; 110: 43854395.
  • 10
    Naqvi K,Garcia-Manero G,Bueso-Ramos C, et al. Discrepancy in diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) between referral and tertiary care centers: Experience at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). Blood 2010; (abstract no. 1870) 116, p. 779.
  • 11
    Young NS,Calado RT,Scheinberg P. Current concepts in the pathophysiology and treatment of aplastic anemia. Blood 2006; 108: 25092519.
  • 12
    Malcovati L,Germing U,Kuendgen A, et al. Time-dependent prognostic scoring system for predicting survival and leukemic evolution in myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25: 35033510.
  • 13
    Malcovati L,Porta MG,Pascutto C, et al. Prognostic factors and life expectancy in myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to WHO criteria: A basis for clinical decision making. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 75947603.
  • 14
    Kantarjian H,O'Brien S,Ravandi F, et al. Proposal for a new risk model in myelodysplastic syndrome that accounts for events not considered in the original International Prognostic Scoring System. Cancer 2008; 113: 13511361.
  • 15
    Garcia-Manero G,Shan J,Faderl S, et al. A prognostic score for patients with lower risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Leukemia 2008; 22: 538543.
  • 16
    Datema FR,Ferrier MB,van der Schroeff MP,Baatenburg de Jong RJ. Impact of comorbidity on short-term mortality and overall survival of head and neck cancer patients. Head Neck 2010; 32: 728736.
  • 17
    Naqvi K,Garcia-Manero G,Sardesai S, et al. Comorbidities and myelodysplatic syndromes. Blood 2009; 114: 2789.
  • 18
    Sekeres MA,Schoonen WM,Kantarjian H, et al. Characteristics of US patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: Results of six cross-sectional physician surveys. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008; 100: 15421551.
  • 19
    Moyo V,Lefebvre P,Duh MS, et al. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in the treatment of anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes: A meta-analysis. Ann Hematol 2008; 87: 527536.
  • 20
    Jadersten M,Malcovati L,Dybedal I, et al. Erythropoietin and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor treatment associated with improved survival in myelodysplastic syndrome. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 36073613.
  • 21
    Jadersten M,Montgomery SM,Dybedal I, et al. Long-term outcome of treatment of anemia in MDS with erythropoietin and G-CSF. Blood 2005; 106: 803811.
  • 22
    Park S,Grabar S,Kelaidi C, et al. Predictive factors of response and survival in myelodysplastic syndrome treated with erythropoietin and G-CSF: The GFM experience. Blood 2008; 111: 574582.
  • 23
    List A,Dewald G,Bennett J, et al. Lenalidomide in the myelodysplastic syndrome with chromosome 5q deletion. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 14561465.
  • 24
    List A,Kurtin S,Roe DJ, et al. Efficacy of lenalidomide in myelodysplastic syndromes. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 549557.
  • 25
    Raza A,Reeves JA,Feldman EJ, et al. Phase 2 study of lenalidomide in transfusion-dependent, low-risk, and intermediate-1 risk myelodysplastic syndromes with karyotypes other than deletion 5q. Blood 2008; 111: 8693.
  • 26
    Fenaux P,Giagounidis A,Selleslag D, et al. RBC transfusion independence and safety profile of lenalidomide 5 or 10 mg in Pts with low- or Int-1-risk MDS with Del5q: Results from a randomized phase III trial (MDS-004). Blood 2009; 114: 944.
  • 27
    Fenaux P,Mufti GJ,Hellstrom-Lindberg E, et al. Efficacy of azacitidine compared with that of conventional care regimens in the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: A randomised, open-label, phase III study. Lancet Oncol 2009; 10: 223232.
  • 28
    Kantarjian H,Issa JP,Rosenfeld CS, et al. Decitabine improves patient outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes: Results of a phase III randomized study. Cancer 2006; 106: 17941803.
  • 29
    Lyons RM,Cosgriff TM,Modi SS, et al. Hematologic response to three alternative dosing schedules of azacitidine in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 18501856.
  • 30
    Garcia-Manero G,Couriel D,Tambaro F, et al. A phase II randomized Bayesian study of very low dose subcutaneous decitabine administered daily or weekly times three in patients with lower risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Blood 2009; 114: 119.
  • 31
    Garcia-Manero G,Stoltz ML,Ward MR, et al. A pilot pharmacokinetic study of oral azacitidine. Leukemia 2008; 22: 16801684.
  • 32
    Olnes MJ,Sloand EM. Targeting immune dysregulation in myelodysplastic syndromes. JAMA 2011; 305: 814819.
  • 33
    Saunthararajah Y,Nakamura R,Wesley R, et al. A simple method to predict response to immunosuppressive therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood 2003; 102: 30253027.
  • 34
    Sloand EM,Olnes MJ,Shenoy A, et al. Alemtuzumab treatment of intermediate-1 myelodysplasia patients is associated with sustained improvement in blood counts and cytogenetic remissions. J Clin Oncol 2011; 28: 51665173.
  • 35
    Zou JX,Rollison DE,Boulware D, et al. Altered naive and memory CD4+ T-cell homeostasis and immunosenescence characterize younger patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Leukemia 2009; 23: 12881296.
  • 36
    Garg R,Faderl S,Garcia-Manero G, et al. Phase II study of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin, cyclosporine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Leukemia 2009; 23: 12971302.
  • 37
    Lim ZY,Killick S,Germing U, et al. Low IPSS score and bone marrow hypocellularity in MDS patients predict hematological responses to antithymocyte globulin. Leukemia 2007; 21: 14361441.
  • 38
    Passweg JR,Giagounidis AA,Simcock M, et al. Immunosuppressive therapy for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome: A prospective randomized multicenter phase III trial comparing antithymocyte globulin plus cyclosporine with best supportive care–SAKK 33/99. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29: 303309.
  • 39
    Cutler CS,Lee SJ,Greenberg P, et al. A decision analysis of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for the myelodysplastic syndromes: Delayed transplantation for low-risk myelodysplasia is associated with improved outcome. Blood 2004; 104: 579585.
  • 40
    Takatoku M,Uchiyama T,Okamoto S, et al. Retrospective nationwide survey of Japanese patients with transfusion-dependent MDS and aplastic anemia highlights the negative impact of iron overload on morbidity/mortality. Eur J Haematol 2007; 78: 487494.
  • 41
    Sanz G,Nomdedeu B,Such E, et al. Independent impact of iron overload and transfusion dependency on survival and leukemic evolution in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood 2008; 112: 640.
  • 42
    Greenberg PL,Attar E,Bennett JM, et al. Myelodysplastic syndromes. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2011; 9: 3056.
  • 43
    Kantarjian H,Oki Y,Garcia-Manero G, et al. Results of a randomized study of 3 schedules of low-dose decitabine in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Blood 2007; 109: 5257.
  • 44
    Steensma DP,Baer MR,Slack JL, et al. Multicenter study of decitabine administered daily for 5 days every 4 weeks to adults with myelodysplastic syndromes: The alternative dosing for outpatient treatment (ADOPT) trial. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:3842–3848.
  • 45
    Blum W,Garzon R,Klisovic RB, et al. Clinical response and miR-29b predictive significance in older AML patients treated with a 10-day schedule of decitabine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010; 107: 74737478.
  • 46
    Silverman LR,Demakos EP,Peterson BL, et al. Randomized controlled trial of azacitidine in patients with the myelodysplastic syndrome: A study of the cancer and leukemia group B. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20: 24292440.
  • 47
    Kornblith AB,Herndon JEII,Silverman LR, et al. Impact of azacytidine on the quality of life of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome treated in a randomized phase III trial: A Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20: 24412452.
  • 48
    Itzykson R,Kosmider O,Cluzeau T, et al. Impact of TET2 mutations on response rate to azacitidine in myelodysplastic syndromes and low blast count acute myeloid leukemias. Leukemia, in press.
  • 49
    Ko M,Huang Y,Jankowska AM, et al. Impaired hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine in myeloid cancers with mutant TET2. Nature 2010; 468: 839843.
  • 50
    Yang H,Fang Z,Wei Y, et al. Levels of miR-29b do not predict for response in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia treated with the combination of 5-azacytidine, valproic acid, and ATRA. Am J Hematol 2011; 86: 237238.
  • 51
    Itzykson R,Thepot S,Quesnel B, et al. Prognostic factors for response and overall survival in 282 patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes treated with azacitidine. Blood 2011; 117: 403411.
  • 52
    Wattel E,De Botton S,Luc Lai J, et al. Long-term follow-up of de novo myelodysplastic syndromes treated with intensive chemotherapy: Incidence of long-term survivors and outcome of partial responders. Br J Haematol 1997; 98: 983991.
  • 53
    Beran M,Shen Y,Kantarjian H, et al. High-dose chemotherapy in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: Covariate-adjusted comparison of five regimens. Cancer 2001; 92: 19992015.
  • 54
    Chang C,Storer BE,Scott BL, et al. Hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia arising from myelodysplastic syndrome: Similar outcomes in patients with de novo disease and disease following prior therapy or antecedent hematologic disorders. Blood 2007; 110: 13791387.
  • 55
    Van Gelder M,Schetelig J,Volin L, et al. Monosomal karyotype predicts poor outcome for MDS/sAML patients with chromosome 7 abnormalities after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for MDS/sAML. A Study of the MDS Subcommittee of the Chronic Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Blood 2009; 114: 293.
  • 56
    Jabbour E,Garcia-Manero G,Batty N, et al. Outcome of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome after failure of decitabine therapy. Cancer 2010; 116: 38303834.
  • 57
    Rose C,Brechignac S,Vassilief D, et al. Positive impact of iron chelation therapy (CT) on survival in regularly transfused MDS patients. A prospective analysis by the GFM. Blood 2007; 110: 249.
  • 58
    Faderl S,Garcia-Manero G,Estrov Z, et al. Oral clofarabine in the treatment of patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 27552760.
  • 59
    Kantarjian H,Garcia-Manero G,O'Brien S, et al. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of oral sapacitabine in patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 285291.