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Clinical Pearls in Blood Diseases
When the eye gives it all: Diagnosis of relapsing acute myeloblastic leukemia with anterior chamber tap of a chronic hypopyon
Version of Record online: 12 APR 2014
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Hematology
Volume 89, Issue 8, pages 858–859, August 2014
How to Cite
Touitou, V., Bodaghi, B., Thépot, S., Chapiro, E., Nguyen-Khac, F., Charlotte, F., LeHoang, P. and Maloum, K. (2014), When the eye gives it all: Diagnosis of relapsing acute myeloblastic leukemia with anterior chamber tap of a chronic hypopyon. Am. J. Hematol., 89: 858–859. doi: 10.1002/ajh.23693
- Issue online: 14 JUL 2014
- Version of Record online: 12 APR 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 14 FEB 2014 03:31AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 10 FEB 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 5 FEB 2014
- Manuscript Received: 15 DEC 2013
A 34-year-old male patient, with a history of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated by bone marrow allograft seven years prior to presentation, was referred for painful decreased vision with redness of the left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and limited to counting fingers in the left eye. Slit lamp examination of the left eye demonstrated episcleral vessels dilation, myotic pupil, corneal edema, hypopyon, rubeosis of the iris, and posterior synechiae (Image 1A). Fundus was not accessible. Polymerase chain reaction for the herpes-virus family and toxoplasmosis in the aqueous humor (AH) were negative. Sub-conjunctival injections of dexamethasone, systemic steroids, and antibiotics (ofloxacin 200mg bid and imipenem 500mg tid) did not bring any improvement. Repeated anterior chamber tap obtained a viscous yellowish AH and cytological analysis showed myeloblasts containing azurophilic granules and 1 or 2 Auer rods (Image 1B). Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of the cells in the AH demonstrated a MLL gene rearrangement in 84% of analyzed nuclei (Image 1C) that was similar to the one observed during the initial disease, seven years ago. Systemic work-up including a TEPscan and a bone marrow aspiration did not reveal any systemic relapse. Brain MRI and lumbar puncture did not show any infiltration of the CNS. The patient later developed severe intraocular hypertension requiring surgical iridectomy. Pathology of the iris showed myeloblasts (Image 1D). Ultrasound demonstrated thickening of the retina and optic disc swelling, suggestive of posterior infiltration. A systemic aracytin-based chemotherapy was started. On follow-up, hypopyon disappeared, visual acuity improved to 20/200 after cataract surgery, and repeated anterior chamber tap did not show any myeloblast. The patient was still in remission one year after the initiation of the treatment and 5 years after the beginning of his ocular relapse.
Patients with uveitis, especially with a hypopyon, undergo an extensive work-up to determine whether it is part of a general disease. The most frequent causes of hypopyon include endophthalmitis, B27-related uveitis , and Behçet's disease . Any severe uveitis, such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, or herpes virus-associated-uveitis can also present with a hypopyon. Rarely, it can reveal a malignancy (usually an intraocular lymphoma) and is referred to as masquerade syndrome.
Intraocular location of AML is extremely rare [3-5]. Leukemic hypopyon has mostly been reported with acute lymphoid leukemia . Matano et al. have reviewed patients with AML and leukemic hypopyon. All had an extramedullary infiltration. Leukemic hypopyon was associated with a systemic relapse and a poor prognosis. All patients but one died within two years. Our patient had relapsing uveitis for at least five years at the time of diagnosis, and systemic work-up did not identify any medullary or extra-medullary infiltration. This is the first report of an isolated ocular location of AML without systemic involvement in an adult patient with long-term follow-up.
Anterior chamber tap is an easy procedure with few complications. It enables direct access to the intraocular media for cytological and molecular analysis. Prompt sampling of AH in refractory hypopyon can help to state the diagnosis.
- 6Unilateral hypopyon in a child as a first and sole presentation in relapsing acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Indian J Ophthalmol 2007;55:223–224., , , et al.