• 1
    Singhal S, Mehta J, Desikan R, et al. Antitumor activity of thalidomide in refractory multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med 1999;341:15651571.
  • 2
    Koreth J, Cutler CS, Djulbegovic B, et al. High-dose therapy with single autologous transplantation versus chemotherapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2007;13:183196.
  • 3
    Fermand JP, Ravaud P, Chevret S, et al. High-dose therapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma: Up-front or rescue treatment? Results of a multicenter sequential randomized clinical trial. Blood 1998;92:31313136.
  • 4
    Giralt S, Stadtmauer EA, Harousseau JL, et al. International myeloma working group (IMWG) consensus statement and guidelines regarding the current status of stem cell collection and high-dose therapy for multiple myeloma and the role of plerixafor (AMD 3100). Leukemia 2009;23:19041912.
  • 5
    Anderson KC, Alsina M, Bensinger W, et al. Multiple myeloma, version 1.2013. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2013;11:1117.
  • 6
    Palumbo A, Cavallo F. Have drug combinations supplanted stem cell transplantation in myeloma? Blood 2012;120:46924698.
  • 7
    Rajkumar SV, Jacobus S, Callander NS, et al. Lenalidomide plus high-dose dexamethasone versus lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone as initial therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: An open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:2937.
  • 8
    Dunavin NC, Wei L, Elder P, et al. Early versus delayed autologous stem cell transplant in patients receiving novel therapies for multiple myeloma. Leuk Lymphoma 2013;54(8):16581664.
  • 9
    American College of Surgeons. National Cancer Data Base. Available at:[Accessed September 4, 2013].
  • 10
    Deyo RA, Cherkin DC, Ciol MA. Adapting a clinical comorbidity index for use with ICD-9-CM administrative databases. J Clin Epidemiol 1992;45:613619.
  • 11
    American College of Surgeons. National Cancer Data Base PUF. Available at:[Accessed August 19, 2013].
  • 12
    Warren JL, Harlan LC, Stevens J, et al. Multiple myeloma treatment transformed: A population-based study of changes in initial management approaches in the United States. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:19841989.
  • 13
    Costa LJ, Zhang MJ, Zhong X, et al. Trends in utilization and outcomes of autologous transplantation as early therapy for multiple myeloma. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2013;19:16151624.
  • 14
    Mikhael JR, Dingli D, Roy V, et al. Management of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma: Updated Mayo Stratification of Myeloma and Risk-Adapted Therapy (mSMART) consensus guidelines 2013. Mayo Clin Proc 2013;88:360376.
  • 15
    Kumar SK, Lacy MQ, Dispenzieri A, et al. Early versus delayed autologous transplantation after immunomodulatory agents-based induction therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Cancer 2012;118:15851592.
  • 16
    Palumbo A, Cavallo F. Have drug combinations supplanted stem cell transplantation in myeloma? Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2012:2012;335341.
  • 17
    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Decision Memo for Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma (CAG-00011N). Available at: [Accessed October 14, 2013].
  • 18
    Majhail NS, Nayyar S, Santibanez ME, et al. Racial disparities in hematopoietic cell transplantation in the United States. Bone Marrow Transplant 2012;47:13851390.
  • 19
    Joshua TV, Rizzo JD, Zhang MJ, et al. Access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Effect of race and sex. Cancer 2010;116:34693476.
  • 20
    Singh GK, Williams SD, Siahpush M, Mulhollen A. Socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US cancer mortality: Part I—All cancers and lung cancer and Part II—Colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers. J Cancer Epidemiol 2011;2011:107497; doi: 10.1155/2011/107497.