SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Willemze R, Jaffe ES, Burg G, et al. WHO-EORTC classification for cutaneous lymphomas. Blood 2005;105:37683785.
  • 2
    Criscione VD, Weinstock MA. Incidence of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in the United States, 1973–2002. Arch Dermatol 2007;143:854859.
  • 3
    Bradford PT, Devesa SS, Anderson WF, Toro JR. Cutaneous lymphoma incidence patterns in the United States: A population-based study of 3884 cases. Blood 2009;113:50645073.
  • 4
    Burns MK, Ellis CN, Cooper KD. Mycosis fungoides-type cutaneous T-cell lymphoma arising before 30 years of age. Immunophenotypic, immunogenotypic and clinicopathologic analysis of nine cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;27:974978.
  • 5
    Pope E, Weitzman S, Ngan B, et al. Mycosis fungoides in the pediatric population: Report from an international childhood registry of cutaneous lymphoma. J Cutan Med Surg 2010;14:16.
  • 6
    Agar NS, Wedgeworth E, Crichton S, et al. Survival outcomes and prognostic factors in mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome: Validation of the revised International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer staging proposal. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:47304739.
  • 7
    Whittemore AS, Holly EA, Lee IM, et al. Mycosis fungoides in relation to environmental exposures and immune response: A case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989;81:15601567.
  • 8
    Magro CM, Crowson AN, Kovatich AJ, Burns F. Drug-induced reversible lymphoid dyscrasia: A clonal lymphomatoid dermatitis of memory and activated T cells. Hum Pathol 2003;34:119129.
  • 9
    Jahan-Tigh RR, Huen AO, Lee GL, et al. Hydrochlorothiazide and cutaneous T cell lymphoma: Prospective analysis and case series. Cancer 2013;119:825831.
  • 10
    Hodak E, Klein T, Gabay B, et al. Familial mycosis fungoides: Report of 6 kindreds and a study of the HLA system. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52:393402.
  • 11
    Hodak E, Lapidoth M, Kohn K, et al. Mycosis fungoides: HLA class II associations among Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jewish patients. Br J Dermatol 2001;145:974980.
  • 12
    Jackow CM, McHam JB, Friss A, et al. HLA-DR5 and DQB1*03 class II alleles are associated with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Invest Dermatol 1996;107:373376.
  • 13
    Clark RA, Chong B, Mirchandani N, et al. The vast majority of CLA+ T cells are resident in normal skin. J Immunol 2006;176:44314439.
  • 14
    Reiss Y, Proudfoot AE, Power CA, et al. CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4 and the CCR10 ligand cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK) in lymphocyte trafficking to inflamed skin. J Exp Med 2001;194:15411547.
  • 15
    Homey B, Alenius H, Muller A, et al. CCL27-CCR10 interactions regulate T cell-mediated skin inflammation. Nat Med 2002;8:157165.
  • 16
    Campbell JJ, Clark RA, Watanabe R, Kupper TS. Sezary syndrome and mycosis fungoides arise from distinct T-cell subsets: A biologic rationale for their distinct clinical behaviors. Blood 2010;116:767771.
  • 17
    Laharanne E, Oumouhou N, Bonnet F, et al. Genome-wide analysis of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas identifies three clinically relevant classes. J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:17071718.
  • 18
    van Doorn R, van Kester MS, Dijkman R, et al. Oncogenomic analysis of mycosis fungoides reveals major differences with Sezary syndrome. Blood 2009;113:127136.
  • 19
    Heid JB, Schmidt A, Oberle N, et al. FOXP3+CD25- tumor cells with regulatory function in Sezary syndrome. J Invest Dermatol 2009;129:28752885.
  • 20
    Krejsgaard T, Odum N, Geisler C, et al. Regulatory T cells and immunodeficiency in mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. Leukemia 2012;26:424432.
  • 21
    Wilcox RA, Wada DA, Ziesmer SC, et al. Monocytes promote tumor cell survival in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and are impaired in their ability to differentiate into mature dendritic cells. Blood 2009;114:29362944.
  • 22
    Berger CL, Tigelaar R, Cohen J, et al. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Malignant proliferation of T-regulatory cells. Blood 2005;105:16401647.
  • 23
    Clark RA. Skin-resident T cells: The ups and downs of on site immunity. J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:362370.
  • 24
    Vowels BR, Lessin SR, Cassin M, et al. Th2 cytokine mRNA expression in skin in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Invest Dermatol 1994;103:669673.
  • 25
    Vowels BR, Cassin M, Vonderheid EC, Rook AH. Aberrant cytokine production by Sezary syndrome patients: Cytokine secretion pattern resembles murine Th2 cells. J Invest Dermatol 1992;99:9094.
  • 26
    Suchin KR, Cassin M, Gottleib SL, et al. Increased interleukin 5 production in eosinophilic Sezary syndrome: Regulation by interferon alfa and interleukin 12. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:2832.
  • 27
    Kari L, Loboda A, Nebozhyn M, et al. Classification and prediction of survival in patients with the leukemic phase of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. J Exp Med 2003;197:14771488.
  • 28
    Nebozhyn M, Loboda A, Kari L, et al. Quantitative PCR on 5 genes reliably identifies CTCL patients with 5% to 99% circulating tumor cells with 90% accuracy. Blood 2006;107:31893196.
  • 29
    Vaque JP, Gomez-Lopez G, Monsalvez V, et al. PLCG1 mutations in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Blood 2014;123:20342043.
  • 30
    Kasprzycka M, Zhang Q, Witkiewicz A, et al. Gamma c-signaling cytokines induce a regulatory T cell phenotype in malignant CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol 2008;181:25062512.
  • 31
    Dalloul A, Laroche L, Bagot M, et al. Interleukin-7 is a growth factor for Sezary lymphoma cells. J Clin Invest 1992;90:10541060.
  • 32
    Berger CL, Hanlon D, Kanada D, et al. The growth of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is stimulated by immature dendritic cells. Blood 2002;99:29292939.
  • 33
    Yamanaka K, Clark R, Rich B, et al. Skin-derived interleukin-7 contributes to the proliferation of lymphocytes in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood 2006;107:24402445.
  • 34
    McCusker ME, Garifallou M, Bogen SA. Sezary lineage cells can be induced to proliferate via CD28-mediated costimulation. J Immunol 1997;158:49844991.
  • 35
    Dave SS, Wright G, Tan B, et al. Prediction of survival in follicular lymphoma based on molecular features of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. N Engl J Med 2004;351:21592169.
  • 36
    Rosenwald A, Wright G, Chan WC, et al. The use of molecular profiling to predict survival after chemotherapy for diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 2002;346:19371947.
  • 37
    Steidl C, Lee T, Shah SP, et al. Tumor-associated macrophages and survival in classic Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med 2010;362:875885.
  • 38
    Schlapbach C, Ochsenbein A, Kaelin U, et al. High numbers of DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells in lesional skin of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010;62:9951004.
  • 39
    Wilcox RA. Cancer-associated myeloproliferation: Old association, new therapeutic target. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85:656663.
  • 40
    Shin J, Monti S, Aires DJ, et al. Lesional gene expression profiling in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma reveals natural clusters associated with disease outcome. Blood 2007;110:30153027.
  • 41
    Wilcox RA, Feldman AL, Wada DA, et al. B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274) suppresses host immunity in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Blood 2009;114:21492158.
  • 42
    Epstein EH Jr., Levin DL, Croft JD Jr., Lutzner MA. Mycosis fungoides. Survival, prognostic features, response to therapy, and autopsy findings. Medicine (Baltimore) 1972;51:6172.
  • 43
    Posner LE, Fossieck BE Jr., Eddy JL, Bunn PA Jr. Septicemic complications of the cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Am J Med 1981;71:210216.
  • 44
    Axelrod PI, Lorber B, Vonderheid EC. Infections complicating mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. JAMA 1992;267:13541358.
  • 45
    Wysocka M, Benoit BM, Newton S, et al. Enhancement of the host immune responses in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and IL-15. Blood 2004;104:41424149.
  • 46
    Bouaziz JD, Ortonne N, Giustiniani J, et al. Circulating natural killer lymphocytes are potential cytotoxic effectors against autologous malignant cells in sezary syndrome patients. J Invest Dermatol 2005;125:12731278.
  • 47
    Wysocka M, Zaki MH, French LE, et al. Sezary syndrome patients demonstrate a defect in dendritic cell populations: Effects of CD40 ligand and treatment with GM-CSF on dendritic cell numbers and the production of cytokines. Blood 2002;100:32873294.
  • 48
    French LE, Huard B, Wysocka M, et al. Impaired CD40L signaling is a cause of defective IL-12 and TNF-alpha production in Sezary syndrome: Circumvention by hexameric soluble CD40L. Blood 2005;105:219225.
  • 49
    Samimi S, Benoit B, Evans K, et al. Increased programmed death-1 expression on CD4+ T cells in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Implications for immune suppression. Arch Dermatol 2010;146:13821388.
  • 50
    Lee BN, Duvic M, Tang CK, et al. Dysregulated synthesis of intracellular type 1 and type 2 cytokines by T cells of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1999;6:7984.
  • 51
    Yawalkar N, Ferenczi K, Jones DA, et al. Profound loss of T-cell receptor repertoire complexity in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood 2003;102:40594066.
  • 52
    Behl D, Ristow K, Markovic SN, et al. Absolute lymphocyte count predicts therapeutic efficacy of rituximab therapy in follicular lymphomas. Br J Haematol 2007;137:409415.
  • 53
    Porrata LF, Gertz MA, Inwards DJ, et al. Early lymphocyte recovery predicts superior survival after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 2001;98:579585.
  • 54
    Porrata LF, Inwards DJ, Ansell SM, et al. Early lymphocyte recovery predicts superior survival after autologous stem cell transplantation in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A prospective study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2008;14:807816.
  • 55
    Porrata LF, Ristow K, Habermann TM, et al. Absolute lymphocyte count at the time of first relapse predicts survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Am J Hematol 2009;84:9397.
  • 56
    Porrata LF, Rsitow K, Inwards DJ, et al. Lymphopenia assessed during routine follow-up after immunochemotherapy (R-CHOP) is a risk factor for predicting relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leukemia 2010;24:13431349.
  • 57
    Siddiqui M, Ristow K, Markovic SN, et al. Absolute lymphocyte count predicts overall survival in follicular lymphomas. Br J Haematol 2006;134:596601.
  • 58
    Leich E, Haralambieva E, Zettl A, et al. Tissue microarray-based screening for chromosomal breakpoints affecting the T-cell receptor gene loci in mature T-cell lymphomas. J Pathol 2007;213:99105.
  • 59
    Feldman AL, Law M, Grogg KL, et al. Incidence of TCR and TCL1 gene translocations and isochromosome 7q in peripheral T-cell lymphomas using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Am J Clin Pathol 2008;130:178185.
  • 60
    Pham-Ledard A, Prochazkova-Carlotti M, Laharanne E, et al. IRF4 gene rearrangements define a subgroup of CD30-positive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: A study of 54 cases. J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:816825.
  • 61
    Feldman AL, Law M, Remstein ED, et al. Recurrent translocations involving the IRF4 oncogene locus in peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Leukemia 2009;23:574580.
  • 62
    Wada DA, Law ME, Hsi ED, et al. Specificity of IRF4 translocations for primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma: A multicenter study of 204 skin biopsies. Mod Pathol 2010;24:596605.
  • 63
    Batista DA, Vonderheid EC, Hawkins A, et al. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (SKY) in mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome: Search for recurrent chromosome abnormalities. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2006;45:383391.
  • 64
    Thangavelu M, Finn WG, Yelavarthi KK, et al. Recurring structural chromosome abnormalities in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome. Blood 1997;89:33713377.
  • 65
    Staudt LM. Oncogenic activation of NF-kappaB. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2010;2:a000109.
  • 66
    Izban KF, Ergin M, Qin JZ, et al. Constitutive expression of NF-kappa B is a characteristic feature of mycosis fungoides: Implications for apoptosis resistance and pathogenesis. Hum Pathol 2000;31:14821490.
  • 67
    Sors A, Jean-Louis F, Pellet C, et al. Down-regulating constitutive activation of the NF-kappaB canonical pathway overcomes the resistance of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma to apoptosis. Blood 2006;107:23542363.
  • 68
    Sors A, Jean-Louis F, Begue E, et al. Inhibition of IkappaB kinase subunit 2 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma down-regulates nuclear factor-kappaB constitutive activation, induces cell death, and potentiates the apoptotic response to antineoplastic chemotherapeutic agents. Clin Cancer Res 2008;14:901911.
  • 69
    Juvekar A, Manna S, Ramaswami S, et al. Bortezomib induces nuclear translocation of IkappaBalpha resulting in gene-specific suppression of NF-kappaB–dependent transcription and induction of apoptosis in CTCL. Mol Cancer Res 2011;9:183194.
  • 70
    Nielsen M, Kaltoft K, Nordahl M, et al. Constitutive activation of a slowly migrating isoform of Stat3 in mycosis fungoides: Tyrphostin AG490 inhibits Stat3 activation and growth of mycosis fungoides tumor cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94:67646769.
  • 71
    Sommer VH, Clemmensen OJ, Nielsen O, et al. In vivo activation of STAT3 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Evidence for an antiapoptotic function of STAT3. Leukemia 2004;18:12881295.
  • 72
    Zhang Q, Wang HY, Woetmann A, et al. STAT3 induces transcription of the DNA methyltransferase 1 gene (DNMT1) in malignant T lymphocytes. Blood 2006;108:10581064.
  • 73
    Verma NK, Davies AM, Long A, et al. STAT3 knockdown by siRNA induces apoptosis in human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma line Hut78 via downregulation of Bcl-xL. Cell Mol Biol Lett 2010;15:342355.
  • 74
    Zhang C, Li B, Zhang X, et al. Curcumin selectively induces apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines and patients' PBMCs: Potential role for STAT-3 and NF-kappaB signaling. J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:21102119.
  • 75
    Nielsen M, Kaestel CG, Eriksen KW, et al. Inhibition of constitutively activated Stat3 correlates with altered Bcl-2/Bax expression and induction of apoptosis in mycosis fungoides tumor cells. Leukemia 1999;13:735738.
  • 76
    Marzec M, Halasa K, Kasprzycka M, et al. Differential effects of interleukin-2 and interleukin-15 versus interleukin-21 on CD4+ cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells. Cancer Res 2008;68:10831091.
  • 77
    Mao X, Lillington DM, Czepulkowski B, et al. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Sezary syndrome. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2003;36:250260.
  • 78
    Barba G, Matteucci C, Girolomoni G, et al. Comparative genomic hybridization identifies 17q11.2 approximately q12 duplication as an early event in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2008;184:4851.
  • 79
    Wu J, Nihal M, Siddiqui J, et al. Low FAS/CD95 expression by CTCL correlates with reduced sensitivity to apoptosis that can be restored by FAS upregulation. J Invest Dermatol 2009;129:11651173.
  • 80
    Wu J, Wood GS. Reduction of Fas/CD95 promoter methylation, upregulation of Fas protein, and enhancement of sensitivity to apoptosis in cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma. Arch Dermatol 2011;147:443449.
  • 81
    Jones CL, Wain EM, Chu CC, et al. Downregulation of Fas gene expression in Sezary syndrome is associated with promoter hypermethylation. J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:11161125.
  • 82
    Dereure O, Levi E, Vonderheid EC, Kadin ME. Infrequent Fas mutations but no Bax or p53 mutations in early mycosis fungoides: A possible mechanism for the accumulation of malignant T lymphocytes in the skin. J Invest Dermatol 2002;118:949956.
  • 83
    Scarisbrick JJ, Woolford AJ, Russell-Jones R, Whittaker SJ. Loss of heterozygosity on 10q and microsatellite instability in advanced stages of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and possible association with homozygous deletion of PTEN. Blood 2000;95:29372942.
  • 84
    van Doorn R, Zoutman WH, Dijkman R, et al. Epigenetic profiling of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes including BCL7a, PTPRG, and p73. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:38863896.
  • 85
    Scarisbrick JJ, Woolford AJ, Calonje E, et al. Frequent abnormalities of the p15 and p16 genes in mycosis fungoides and sezary syndrome. J Invest Dermatol 2002;118:493499.
  • 86
    Laharanne E, Chevret E, Idrissi Y, et al. CDKN2A-CDKN2B deletion defines an aggressive subset of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Mod Pathol 2010;23:547558.
  • 87
    Mao X, Orchard G, Vonderheid EC, et al. Heterogeneous abnormalities of CCND1 and RB1 in primary cutaneous T-Cell lymphomas suggesting impaired cell cycle control in disease pathogenesis. J Invest Dermatol 2006;126:13881395.
  • 88
    Kennah E, Ringrose A, Zhou LL, et al. Identification of tyrosine kinase, HCK, and tumor suppressor, BIN1, as potential mediators of AHI-1 oncogene in primary and transformed CTCL cells. Blood 2009;113:46464655.
  • 89
    Qin JZ, Dummer R, Burg G, Dobbeling U. Constitutive and interleukin-7/interleukin-15 stimulated DNA binding of Myc, Jun, and novel Myc-like proteins in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells. Blood 1999;93:260267.
  • 90
    Kiessling MK, Oberholzer PA, Mondal C, et al. High-throughput mutation profiling of CTCL samples reveals KRAS and NRAS mutations sensitizing tumors toward inhibition of the RAS/RAF/MEK signaling cascade. Blood 2011;117:24332440.
  • 91
    Krejsgaard T, Vetter-Kauczok CS, Woetmann A, et al. Ectopic expression of B-lymphoid kinase in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood 2009;113:58965904.
  • 92
    Kim YH, Liu HL, Mraz-Gernhard S, et al. Long-term outcome of 525 patients with mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome: Clinical prognostic factors and risk for disease progression. Arch Dermatol 2003;139:857866.
  • 93
    van Doorn R, Van Haselen CW, van Voorst Vader PC, et al. Mycosis fungoides: Disease evolution and prognosis of 309 Dutch patients. Arch Dermatol 2000;136:504510.
  • 94
    Arulogun SO, Prince HM, Ng J, et al. Long-term outcomes of patients with advanced-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and large cell transformation. Blood 2008;112:30823087.
  • 95
    Morgan SM, Hodges E, Mitchell TJ, et al. Molecular analysis of T-cell receptor beta genes in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma reveals Jbeta1 bias. J Invest Dermatol 2006;126:18931899.
  • 96
    Ponti R, Quaglino P, Novelli M, et al. T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement by multiplex polymerase chain reaction/heteroduplex analysis in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome) and benign inflammatory disease: Correlation with clinical, histological and immunophenotypical findings. Br J Dermatol 2005;153:565573.
  • 97
    Guitart J, Magro C. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoid dyscrasia: A unifying term for idiopathic chronic dermatoses with persistent T-cell clones. Arch Dermatol 2007;143:921932.
  • 98
    Posnett DN, Sinha R, Kabak S, Russo C. Clonal populations of T cells in normal elderly humans: The T cell equivalent to "benign monoclonal gammapathy". J Exp Med 1994;179:609618.
  • 99
    Epling-Burnette PK, Painter JS, Rollison DE, et al. Prevalence and clinical association of clonal T-cell expansions in Myelodysplastic Syndrome. Leukemia 2007;21:659667.
  • 100
    Martinez A, Pittaluga S, Villamor N, et al. Clonal T-cell populations and increased risk for cytotoxic T-cell lymphomas in B-CLL patients: Clinicopathologic observations and molecular analysis. Am J Surg Pathol 2004;28:849858.
  • 101
    Kohler S, Jones CD, Warnke RA, Zehnder JL. PCR-heteroduplex analysis of T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement in paraffin-embedded skin biopsies. Am J Dermatopathol 2000;22:321327.
  • 102
    Thurber SE, Zhang B, Kim YH, et al. T-cell clonality analysis in biopsy specimens from two different skin sites shows high specificity in the diagnosis of patients with suggested mycosis fungoides. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007;57:782790.
  • 103
    Gniadecki R, Lukowsky A. Monoclonal T-cell dyscrasia of undetermined significance associated with recalcitrant erythroderma. Arch Dermatol 2005;141:361367.
  • 104
    Ormsby A, Bergfeld WF, Tubbs RR, Hsi ED. Evaluation of a new paraffin-reactive CD7 T-cell deletion marker and a polymerase chain reaction-based T-cell receptor gene rearrangement assay: Implications for diagnosis of mycosis fungoides in community clinical practice. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;45:405413.
  • 105
    Michie SA, Abel EA, Hoppe RT, et al. Discordant expression of antigens between intraepidermal and intradermal T cells in mycosis fungoides. Am J Pathol 1990;137:14471451.
  • 106
    Kazakov DV, Burg G, Kempf W. Clinicopathological spectrum of mycosis fungoides. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2004;18:397415.
  • 107
    Pimpinelli N, Olsen EA, Santucci M, et al. Defining early mycosis fungoides. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;53:10531063.
  • 108
    Sezary A, Bouvrain Y. Erythrodermie avec presence de cellules monstrueses dans le derme et le sang circulant. Bull Soc Fr Derm Syph 1938;45:254260.
  • 109
    Main RA, Goodall HB, Swanson WC. Sezary's syndrome. Br J Dermatol 1959;71:335343.
  • 110
    Taswell HF, Winkelmann RK. Sezary syndrome–a malignant reticulemic erythroderma. JAMA 1961;177:465472.
  • 111
    Lutzner MA, Emerit I, Durepaire R, et al. Cytogenetic, cytophotometric, and ultrastructural study of large cerebriform cells of the Sezary syndrome and description of a small-cell variant. J Natl Cancer Inst 1973;50:11451162.
  • 112
    Lutzner MA, Jordan HW. The ultrastructure of an abnormal cell in Sezary's syndrome. Blood 1968;31:719726.
  • 113
    Edelson RL, Lutzner MA, Kirkpatrick CH, et al. Morphologic and functional properties of the atypical T lymphocytes of the Sezary syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc 1974;49:558566.
  • 114
    Lutzner MA, Hobbs JW, Horvath P. Ultrastructure of abnormal cells in Sezary syndrome, mycosis fungoides, and parapsoriasis en plaque. Arch Dermatol 1971;103:375386.
  • 115
    Matutes E, Robinson D, O'Brien M, et al. Candidate counterparts of Sezary cells and adult T-cell lymphoma-leukaemia cells in normal peripheral blood: An ultrastructural study with the immunogold method and monoclonal antibodies. Leuk Res 1983;7:787801.
  • 116
    Reinhold U, Herpertz M, Kukel S, et al. Induction of nuclear contour irregularity during T-cell activation via the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex and CD2 antigens in the presence of phorbol esters. Blood 1994;83:703706.
  • 117
    Scheffer E, Meijer CJ, van Vloten WA, Willemze R. A histologic study of lymph nodes from patients with the Sezary syndrome. Cancer 1986;57:23752380.
  • 118
    Willemze R, van Vloten WA, Hermans J, et al. Diagnostic criteria in Sezary's syndrome: A multiparameter study of peripheral blood lymphocytes in 32 patients with erythroderma. J Invest Dermatol 1983;81:392397.
  • 119
    Boumsell L, Bernard A, Reinherz EL, et al. Surface antigens on malignant Sezary and T-CLL cells correspond to those of mature T cells. Blood 1981;57:526530.
  • 120
    Vonderheid EC, Bernengo MG, Burg G, et al. Update on erythrodermic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Report of the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;46:95106.
  • 121
    Hristov AC, Vonderheid EC, Borowitz MJ. Simplified flow cytometric assessment in mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. Am J Clin Pathol 2011;136:944953.
  • 122
    Bernengo MG, Quaglino P, Novelli M, et al. Prognostic factors in Sezary syndrome: A multivariate analysis of clinical, haematological and immunological features. Ann Oncol 1998;9:857863.
  • 123
    Harmon CB, Witzig TE, Katzmann JA, Pittelkow MR. Detection of circulating T cells with CD4+CD7- immunophenotype in patients with benign and malignant lymphoproliferative dermatoses. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;35:404410.
  • 124
    Bogen SA, Pelley D, Charif M, et al. Immunophenotypic identification of Sezary cells in peripheral blood. Am J Clin Pathol 1996;106:739748.
  • 125
    Ginaldi L, Matutes E, Farahat N, et al. Differential expression of CD3 and CD7 in T-cell malignancies: A quantitative study by flow cytometry. Br J Haematol 1996;93:921927.
  • 126
    Jones D, Dang NH, Duvic M, et al. Absence of CD26 expression is a useful marker for diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma in peripheral blood. Am J Clin Pathol 2001;115:885892.
  • 127
    Pierson DM, Jones D, Muzzafar T, et al. Utility of CD26 in flow cytometric immunophenotyping of T-cell lymphomas in tissue and body fluid specimens. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2008;74:341348.
  • 128
    Sokolowska-Wojdylo M, Wenzel J, Gaffal E, et al. Absence of CD26 expression on skin-homing CLA+ CD4+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood is a highly sensitive marker for early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients with Sezary syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol 2005;30:702706.
  • 129
    Bahler DW, Hartung L, Hill S, et al. CD158k/KIR3DL2 is a useful marker for identifying neoplastic T-cells in Sezary syndrome by flow cytometry. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2008;74:156162.
  • 130
    Poszepczynska-Guigne E, Schiavon V, D'Incan M, et al. CD158k/KIR3DL2 is a new phenotypic marker of Sezary cells: Relevance for the diagnosis and follow-up of Sezary syndrome. J Invest Dermatol 2004;122:820823.
  • 131
    Klemke CD, Brade J, Weckesser S, et al. The diagnosis of Sezary syndrome on peripheral blood by flow cytometry requires the use of multiple markers. Br J Dermatol 2008;159:871880.
  • 132
    Morice WG, Kimlinger T, Katzmann JA, et al. Flow cytometric assessment of TCR-Vbeta expression in the evaluation of peripheral blood involvement by T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders: A comparison with conventional T-cell immunophenotyping and molecular genetic techniques. Am J Clin Pathol 2004;121:373383.
  • 133
    Schwab C, Willers J, Niederer E, et al. The use of anti-T-cell receptor-Vbeta antibodies for the estimation of treatment success and phenotypic characterization of clonal T-cell populations in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Br J Haematol 2002;118:10191026.
  • 134
    Clark RA, Shackelton JB, Watanabe R, et al. High-scatter T cells: A reliable biomarker for malignant T cells in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood 2011;117:19661976.
  • 135
    Wilcox RA. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: 2011 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management. Am J Hematol 2011;86:928948.
  • 136
    Olsen E, Vonderheid E, Pimpinelli N, et al. Revisions to the staging and classification of mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome: A proposal of the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas (ISCL) and the cutaneous lymphoma task force of the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Blood 2007;110:17131722.
  • 137
    Scheffer E, Meijer CJ, Van Vloten WA. Dermatopathic lymphadenopathy and lymph node involvement in mycosis fungoides. Cancer 1980;45:137148.
  • 138
    Sausville EA, Worsham GF, Matthews MJ, et al. Histologic assessment of lymph nodes in mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma): Clinical correlations and prognostic import of a new classification system. Hum Pathol 1985;16:10981109.
  • 139
    Clendenning WE, Rappaport HW. Report of the Committee on pathology of cutaneous T cell lymphomas. Cancer Treat Rep 1979;63:719724.
  • 140
    Fraser-Andrews EA, Mitchell T, Ferreira S, et al. Molecular staging of lymph nodes from 60 patients with mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome: Correlation with histopathology and outcome suggests prognostic relevance in mycosis fungoides. Br J Dermatol 2006;155:756762.
  • 141
    Assaf C, Hummel M, Steinhoff M, et al. Early TCR-beta and TCR-gamma PCR detection of T-cell clonality indicates minimal tumor disease in lymph nodes of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Diagnostic and prognostic implications. Blood 2005;105:503510.
  • 142
    Scarisbrick JJ, Whittaker S, Evans AV, et al. Prognostic significance of tumor burden in the blood of patients with erythrodermic primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood 2001;97:624630.
  • 143
    Fraser-Andrews EA, Woolford AJ, Russell-Jones R, et al. Detection of a peripheral blood T cell clone is an independent prognostic marker in mycosis fungoides. J Invest Dermatol 2000;114:117121.
  • 144
    Vergier B, de Muret A, Beylot-Barry M, et al. Transformation of mycosis fungoides: Clinicopathological and prognostic features of 45 cases. French Study Group of Cutaneious Lymphomas. Blood 2000;95:22122218.
  • 145
    Greer JP, Salhany KE, Cousar JB, et al. Clinical features associated with transformation of cerebriform T-cell lymphoma to a large cell process. Hematol Oncol 1990;8:215227.
  • 146
    Salhany KE, Cousar JB, Greer JP, et al. Transformation of cutaneous T cell lymphoma to large cell lymphoma. A clinicopathologic and immunologic study. Am J Pathol 1988;132:265277.
  • 147
    Diamandidou E, Colome M, Fayad L, et al. Prognostic factor analysis in mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;40:914924.
  • 148
    Diamandidou E, Colome-Grimmer M, Fayad L, et al. Transformation of mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome: Clinical characteristics and prognosis. Blood 1998;92:11501159.
  • 149
    Kim YH, Willemze R, Pimpinelli N, et al. TNM classification system for primary cutaneous lymphomas other than mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome: A proposal of the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas (ISCL) and the Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force of the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Blood 2007;110:479484.
  • 150
    Litvinov IV, Jones DA, Sasseville D, Kupper TS. Transcriptional profiles predict disease outcome in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res 2010;16:21062114.
  • 151
    Caprini E, Cristofoletti C, Arcelli D, et al. Identification of key regions and genes important in the pathogenesis of sezary syndrome by combining genomic and expression microarrays. Cancer Res 2009;69:84388446.
  • 152
    Salgado R, Servitje O, Gallardo F, et al. Oligonucleotide array-CGH identifies genomic subgroups and prognostic markers for tumor stage mycosis fungoides. J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:11261135.
  • 153
    Kaye FJ, Bunn PA Jr., Steinberg SM, et al. A randomized trial comparing combination electron-beam radiation and chemotherapy with topical therapy in the initial treatment of mycosis fungoides. N Engl J Med 1989;321:17841790.
  • 154
    Trautinger F, Knobler R, Willemze R, et al. EORTC consensus recommendations for the treatment of mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome. Eur J Cancer 2006;42:10141030.
  • 155
    Lansigan F, Foss FM. Current and emerging treatment strategies for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Drugs 2010;70:273286.
  • 156
    Horwitz SM, Olsen EA, Duvic M, et al. Review of the treatment of mycosis fungoides and sezary syndrome: A stage-based approach. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2008;6:436442.
  • 157
    Prince HM, Whittaker S, Hoppe RT. How I treat mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. Blood 2009;114:43374353.
  • 158
    Whittaker SJ, Marsden JR, Spittle M, et al. Joint British Association of Dermatologists and U.K. Cutaneous Lymphoma Group guidelines for the management of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Br J Dermatol 2003;149:10951107.
  • 159
    Jones GW, Kacinski BM, Wilson LD, et al. Total skin electron radiation in the management of mycosis fungoides: Consensus of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Cutaneous Lymphoma Project Group. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47:364370.
  • 160
    Kempf W, Kettelhack N, Duvic M, Burg G. Topical and systemic retinoid therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2003;17:14051419.
  • 161
    Zhang C, Duvic M. Retinoids: Therapeutic applications and mechanisms of action in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Dermatol Ther 2003;16:322330.
  • 162
    Nieto-Rementeria N, Perez-Yarza G, Boyano MD, et al. Bexarotene activates the p53/p73 pathway in human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Br J Dermatol 2009;160:519526.
  • 163
    Zhang C, Hazarika P, Ni X, et al. Induction of apoptosis by bexarotene in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells: Relevance to mechanism of therapeutic action. Clin Cancer Res 2002;8:12341240.
  • 164
    Duvic M, Hymes K, Heald P, et al. Bexarotene is effective and safe for treatment of refractory advanced-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Multinational phase II-III trial results. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:24562471.
  • 165
    Abbott RA, Whittaker SJ, Morris SL, et al. Bexarotene therapy for mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. Br J Dermatol 2009;160:12991307.
  • 166
    Assaf C, Bagot M, Dummer R, et al. Minimizing adverse side-effects of oral bexarotene in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: An expert opinion. Br J Dermatol 2006;155:261266.
  • 167
    Gniadecki R, Assaf C, Bagot M, et al. The optimal use of bexarotene in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Br J Dermatol 2007;157:433440.
  • 168
    Scarisbrick JJ, Morris S, Azurdia R, et al. U.K. consensus statement on safe clinical prescribing of bexarotene for patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Br J Dermatol 2013;168:192200.
  • 169
    Huber MA, Kunzi-Rapp K, Staib G, Scharffetter-Kochanek K. Management of refractory early-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) with a combination of oral bexarotene and psoralen plus ultraviolet bath therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004;50:475476.
  • 170
    Schrump DS. Cytotoxicity mediated by histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer cells: Mechanisms and potential clinical implications. Clin Cancer Res 2009;15:39473957.
  • 171
    Lemoine M, Younes A. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in the treatment of lymphoma. Discov Med 2010;10:462470.
  • 172
    Gui CY, Ngo L, Xu WS, et al. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor activation of p21WAF1 involves changes in promoter-associated proteins, including HDAC1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101:12411246.
  • 173
    Richon VM, Sandhoff TW, Rifkind RA, Marks PA. Histone deacetylase inhibitor selectively induces p21WAF1 expression and gene-associated histone acetylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97:1001410019.
  • 174
    Sandor V, Senderowicz A, Mertins S, et al. P21-dependent g(1)arrest with downregulation of cyclin D1 and upregulation of cyclin E by the histone deacetylase inhibitor FR901228. Br J Cancer 2000;83:817825.
  • 175
    Zhang C, Richon V, Ni X, et al. Selective induction of apoptosis by histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells: Relevance to mechanism of therapeutic action. J Invest Dermatol 2005;125:10451052.
  • 176
    Shao W, Growney JD, Feng Y, et al. Activity of deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma models: Defining molecular mechanisms of resistance. Int J Cancer 2010;127:21992208.
  • 177
    Tang Y, Zhao W, Chen Y, et al. Acetylation is indispensable for p53 activation. Cell 2008;133:612626.
  • 178
    Zhao Y, Lu S, Wu L, et al. Acetylation of p53 at lysine 373/382 by the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide induces expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1). Mol Cell Biol 2006;26:27822790.
  • 179
    Dai Y, Rahmani M, Dent P, Grant S. Blockade of histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced RelA/p65 acetylation and NF-kappaB activation potentiates apoptosis in leukemia cells through a process mediated by oxidative damage, XIAP downregulation, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 activation. Mol Cell Biol 2005;25:54295444.
  • 180
    Zhang XD, Gillespie SK, Borrow JM, Hersey P. The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberic bishydroxamate regulates the expression of multiple apoptotic mediators and induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of melanoma cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2004;3:425435.
  • 181
    Kim SH, Jeong JW, Park JA, et al. Regulation of the HIF-1alpha stability by histone deacetylases. Oncol Rep 2007;17:647651.
  • 182
    Heider U, Kaiser M, Sterz J, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors reduce VEGF production and induce growth suppression and apoptosis in human mantle cell lymphoma. Eur J Haematol 2006;76:4250.
  • 183
    Catley L, Weisberg E, Kiziltepe T, et al. Aggresome induction by proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and alpha-tubulin hyperacetylation by tubulin deacetylase (TDAC) inhibitor LBH589 are synergistic in myeloma cells. Blood 2006;108:34413449.
  • 184
    Munshi A, Kurland JF, Nishikawa T, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors radiosensitize human melanoma cells by suppressing DNA repair activity. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:49124922.
  • 185
    Rosato RR, Almenara JA, Grant S. The histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 promotes differentiation or apoptosis in human leukemia cells through a process regulated by generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of p21CIP1/WAF1 1. Cancer Res 2003;63:36373645.
  • 186
    Martirosyan A, Leonard S, Shi X, et al. Actions of a histone deacetylase inhibitor NSC3852 (5-nitroso-8-quinolinol) link reactive oxygen species to cell differentiation and apoptosis in MCF-7 human mammary tumor cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006;317:546552.
  • 187
    Weiser TS, Ohnmacht GA, Guo ZS, et al. Induction of MAGE-3 expression in lung and esophageal cancer cells. Ann Thorac Surg 2001;71:295301; discussion 301-292.
  • 188
    Tiffon C, Adams J, van der Fits L, et al. The histone deacetylase inhibitors vorinostat and romidepsin downmodulate IL-10 expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells. Br J Pharmacol 2011;162:15901602.
  • 189
    Gloghini A, Buglio D, Khaskhely NM, et al. Expression of histone deacetylases in lymphoma: Implication for the development of selective inhibitors. Br J Haematol 2009;147:515525.
  • 190
    Prince HM, Bishton MJ, Harrison SJ. Clinical studies of histone deacetylase inhibitors. Clin Cancer Res 2009;15:39583969.
  • 191
    Duvic M, Talpur R, Ni X, et al. Phase 2 trial of oral vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA) for refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Blood 2007;109:3139.
  • 192
    Olsen EA, Kim YH, Kuzel TM, et al. Phase IIb multicenter trial of vorinostat in patients with persistent, progressive, or treatment refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:31093115.
  • 193
    Kim E, Rook A, Kim Y, et al. Romidepsin activity in all three disease compartments (skin, blood, lymph nodes) in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). J Clin Oncol 2010;28:abstract 8047.
  • 194
    Duvic M, Olsen EA, Breneman D, et al. Evaluation of the long-term tolerability and clinical benefit of vorinostat in patients with advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma 2009;9:412416.
  • 195
    Whittaker SJ, Demierre MF, Kim EJ, et al. Final results from a multicenter, international, pivotal study of romidepsin in refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:44854491.
  • 196
    Piekarz RL, Frye R, Turner M, et al. Phase II multi-institutional trial of the histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin as monotherapy for patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:54105417.
  • 197
    Piekarz RL, Frye AR, Wright JJ, et al. Cardiac studies in patients treated with depsipeptide, FK228, in a phase II trial for T-cell lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res 2006;12:37623773.
  • 198
    Ellis L, Pan Y, Smyth GK, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat induces clinical responses with associated alterations in gene expression profiles in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res 2008;14:45004510.
  • 199
    Pohlman B, Advani RH, Duvic M, et al. Final results of a phase II trial of Belinostat (PXD101) in patients with recurrent or refractory peripheral or cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood 2009;114:abstract 920.
  • 200
    Fantin VR, Loboda A, Paweletz CP, et al. Constitutive activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription predicts vorinostat resistance in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Cancer Res 2008;68:37853794.
  • 201
    Robey RW, Zhan Z, Piekarz RL, et al. Increased MDR1 expression in normal and malignant peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients receiving depsipeptide (FR901228, FK228, NSC630176). Clin Cancer Res 2006;12:15471555.
  • 202
    Karpova MB, Gunz D, Okoniewski MJ, et al. Transcriptome adaptation caused by vorinostat/bexarotene combination therapy in advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:abstract 8050.
  • 203
    Khan O, Fotheringham S, Wood V, et al. HR23B is a biomarker for tumor sensitivity to HDAC inhibitor-based therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010;107:65326537.
  • 204
    Chakraborty AR, Robey RW, Luchenko VL, et al. MAPK pathway activation leads to Bim loss and histone deacetylase inhibitor resistance: Rationale to combine romidepsin with an MEK inhibitor. Blood 2013;121:41154125.
  • 205
    Heider U, Rademacher J, Lamottke B, et al. Synergistic interaction of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Eur J Haematol 2009;82:440449.
  • 206
    Dummer R, Hymes K, Sterry W, et al. Vorinostat in combination with bexarotene in advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: A phase I study. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:abstract 8572.
  • 207
    Olsen EA, Rosen ST, Vollmer RT, et al. Interferon alfa-2a in the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;20:395407.
  • 208
    Sun WH, Pabon C, Alsayed Y, et al. Interferon-alpha resistance in a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell line is associated with lack of STAT1 expression. Blood 1998;91:570576.
  • 209
    Bunn PA Jr., Foon KA, Ihde DC, et al. Recombinant leukocyte A interferon: An active agent in advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Ann Intern Med 1984;101:484487.
  • 210
    Jumbou O, N'Guyen JM, Tessier MH, et al. Long-term follow-up in 51 patients with mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome treated by interferon-alfa. Br J Dermatol 1999;140:427431.
  • 211
    Olsen EA, Bunn PA. Interferon in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1995;9:10891107.
  • 212
    Kuzel TM, Gilyon K, Springer E, et al. Interferon alfa-2a combined with phototherapy in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990;82:203207.
  • 213
    Straus DJ, Duvic M, Kuzel T, et al. Results of a phase II trial of oral bexarotene (Targretin) combined with interferon alfa-2b (Intron-A) for patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Cancer 2007;109:17991803.
  • 214
    Dippel E, Schrag H, Goerdt S, Orfanos CE. Extracorporeal photopheresis and interferon-alpha in advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Lancet 1997;350:3233.
  • 215
    Foss FM, Ihde DC, Breneman DL, et al. Phase II study of pentostatin and intermittent high-dose recombinant interferon alfa-2a in advanced mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:19071913.
  • 216
    Fritz TM, Kleinhans M, Nestle FO, et al. Combination treatment with extracorporeal photopheresis, interferon alfa and interleukin-2 in a patient with the Sezary syndrome. Br J Dermatol 1999;140:11441147.
  • 217
    Zachariae H, Thestrup-Pedersen K. Interferon alpha and etretinate combination treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Invest Dermatol 1990;95:206S208S.
  • 218
    Papa G, Tura S, Mandelli F, et al. Is interferon alpha in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma a treatment of choice? Br J Haematol 1991;79 Suppl 1:4851.
  • 219
    Rupoli S, Barulli S, Guiducci B, et al. Low dose interferon-alpha2b combined with PUVA is an effective treatment of early stage mycosis fungoides: Results of a multicenter study. Cutaneous-T Cell Lymphoma Multicenter Study Group. Haematologica 1999;84:809813.
  • 220
    Kuzel TM, Roenigk HH Jr., Samuelson E, et al. Effectiveness of interferon alfa-2a combined with phototherapy for mycosis fungoides and the Sezary syndrome. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:257263.
  • 221
    Roenigk HH Jr., Kuzel TM, Skoutelis AP, et al. Photochemotherapy alone or combined with interferon alpha-2a in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Invest Dermatol 1990;95:198S205S.
  • 222
    Chiarion-Sileni V, Bononi A, Fornasa CV, et al. Phase II trial of interferon-alpha-2a plus psolaren with ultraviolet light A in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Cancer 2002;95:569575.
  • 223
    Foss FM, Ihde DC, Linnoila IR, et al. Phase II trial of fludarabine phosphate and interferon alfa-2a in advanced mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:20512059.
  • 224
    Suchin KR, Cucchiara AJ, Gottleib SL, et al. Treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with combined immunomodulatory therapy: A 14-year experience at a single institution. Arch Dermatol 2002;138:10541060.
  • 225
    Bladon J, Taylor PC. Lymphocytes treated by extracorporeal photopheresis demonstrate a drop in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio: A possible mechanism involved in extracorporeal-photopheresis-induced apoptosis. Dermatology 2002;204:104107.
  • 226
    Bladon J, Taylor PC. Extracorporeal photopheresis: A focus on apoptosis and cytokines. J Dermatol Sci 2006;43:8594.
  • 227
    Osella-Abate S, Zaccagna A, Savoia P, et al. Expression of apoptosis markers on peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma during extracorporeal photochemotherapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:4047.
  • 228
    Berger C, Hoffmann K, Vasquez JG, et al. Rapid generation of maturationally synchronized human dendritic cells: Contribution to the clinical efficacy of extracorporeal photochemotherapy. Blood 2010;116:48384847.
  • 229
    Berger CL, Xu AL, Hanlon D, et al. Induction of human tumor-loaded dendritic cells. Int J Cancer 2001;91:438447.
  • 230
    Girardi M, Berger CL, Wilson LD, et al. Transimmunization for cutaneous T cell lymphoma: A Phase I study. Leuk Lymphoma 2006;47:14951503.
  • 231
    Edelson R, Berger C, Gasparro F, et al. Treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma by extracorporeal photochemotherapy. Preliminary results. N Engl J Med 1987;316:297303.
  • 232
    Knobler R, Jantschitsch C. Extracorporeal photochemoimmunotherapy in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Transfus Apher Sci 2003;28:8189.
  • 233
    Zic JA. The treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with photopheresis. Dermatol Ther 2003;16:337346.
  • 234
    Quaglino P, Knobler R, Fierro MT, et al. Extracorporeal photopheresis for the treatment of erythrodermic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: A single center clinical experience with long-term follow-up data and a brief overview of the literature. Int J Dermatol 2013;52:13081318.
  • 235
    Knobler R, Berlin G, Calzavara-Pinton P, et al. Guidelines on the use of extracorporeal photopheresis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2014;28 Suppl 1:137.
  • 236
    Gottlieb SL, Wolfe JT, Fox FE, et al. Treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with extracorporeal photopheresis monotherapy and in combination with recombinant interferon alfa: A 10-year experience at a single institution. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;35:946957.
  • 237
    Heald P, Rook A, Perez M, et al. Treatment of erythrodermic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with extracorporeal photochemotherapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;27:427433.
  • 238
    Zic JA, Stricklin GP, Greer JP, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma treated with extracorporeal photochemotherapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;35:935945.
  • 239
    Wilson LD, Jones GW, Kim D, et al. Experience with total skin electron beam therapy in combination with extracorporeal photopheresis in the management of patients with erythrodermic (T4) mycosis fungoides. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43:5460.
  • 240
    Wilson LD, Licata AL, Braverman IM, et al. Systemic chemotherapy and extracorporeal photochemotherapy for T3 and T4 cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients who have achieved a complete response to total skin electron beam therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995;32:987995.
  • 241
    Tsirigotis P, Pappa V, Papageorgiou S, et al. Extracorporeal photopheresis in combination with bexarotene in the treatment of mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. Br J Dermatol 2007;156:13791381.
  • 242
    Ginaldi L, De Martinis M, Matutes E, et al. Levels of expression of CD52 in normal and leukemic B and T cells: Correlation with in vivo therapeutic responses to Campath-1H. Leuk Res 1998;22:185191.
  • 243
    Lundin J, Hagberg H, Repp R, et al. Phase 2 study of alemtuzumab (anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody) in patients with advanced mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome. Blood 2003;101:42674272.
  • 244
    Bernengo MG, Quaglino P, Comessatti A, et al. Low-dose intermittent alemtuzumab in the treatment of Sezary syndrome: Clinical and immunologic findings in 14 patients. Haematologica 2007;92:784794.
  • 245
    Fisher DC, Tawa M, Walsh M, et al. Low-dose alemtuzumab is uniquely effective in refractory leukemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (L-CTCL). Blood 2009;114:abstract 3748.
  • 246
    Thursky KA, Worth LJ, Seymour JF, et al. Spectrum of infection, risk and recommendations for prophylaxis and screening among patients with lymphoproliferative disorders treated with alemtuzumab*. Br J Haematol 2006;132:312.
  • 247
    Enblad G, Hagberg H, Erlanson M, et al. A pilot study of alemtuzumab (anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody) therapy for patients with relapsed or chemotherapy-refractory peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Blood 2004;103:29202924.
  • 248
    Gautschi O, Blumenthal N, Streit M, et al. Successful treatment of chemotherapy-refractory Sezary syndrome with alemtuzumab (Campath-1H). Eur J Haematol 2004;72:6163.
  • 249
    Kennedy GA, Seymour JF, Wolf M, et al. Treatment of patients with advanced mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome with alemtuzumab. Eur J Haematol 2003;71:250256.
  • 250
    O'Mahony D, Morris JC, Moses L, et al. Phase I Trial of Siplizumab in CD2-Positive Lymphoproliferative Disease. Blood 2005;106:abstract 3353.
  • 251
    Kim YH, Duvic M, Obitz E, et al. Clinical efficacy of zanolimumab (HuMax-CD4): Two phase 2 studies in refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood 2007;109:46554662.
  • 252
    Kreitman RJ, Wilson WH, White JD, et al. Phase I trial of recombinant immunotoxin anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38 (LMB-2) in patients with hematologic malignancies. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:16221636.
  • 253
    Suzuki R. Dosing of a phase I study of KW-0761, an anti-CCR4 antibody, for adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:e404405; author reply e406.
  • 254
    Yamamoto K, Utsunomiya A, Tobinai K, et al. Phase I study of KW-0761, a defucosylated humanized anti-CCR4 antibody, in relapsed patients with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:15911598.
  • 255
    Duvic M, Pinter-Brown L, Foss F, et al. Results of a phase 1/2 Study for KW-0761, a Monoclonal Antibody Directed Against CC Chemokine Receptor Type 4 (CCR4), In CTCL Patients. Blood 2010;116:Abstract 285.
  • 256
    Ogura M, Ishida T, Hatake K, et al. Multicenter Phase II Study of Mogamulizumab (KW-0761), a Defucosylated Anti-CC Chemokine Receptor 4 Antibody, in Patients With Relapsed Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma and Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:11571163.
  • 257
    Krathen M, Sundram M, Bashey S, et al. Brentuximab vedotin demonstrates significant clinical activity in relapsed or refractory mycosis fungoides with variable CD30 expression. Blood (ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts) 2012;120.
  • 258
    Whittaker SJ, Foss FM. Efficacy and tolerability of currently available therapies for the mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome variants of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Cancer Treat Rev 2007;33:146160.
  • 259
    Akpek G, Koh HK, Bogen S, et al. Chemotherapy with etoposide, vincristine, doxorubicin, bolus cyclophosphamide, and oral prednisone in patients with refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Cancer 1999;86:13681376.
  • 260
    Molin L, Thomsen K, Volden G, et al. Combination chemotherapy in the tumour stage of mycosis fungoides with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, vp-16, adriamycin and prednisolone (cop, chop, cavop): A report from the Scandinavian mycosis fungoides study group. Acta Derm Venereol 1980;60:542544.
  • 261
    Duvic M, Lemak NA, Redman JR, et al. Combined modality therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;34:10221029.
  • 262
    Zackheim HS, Epstein EH Jr. Low-dose methotrexate for the Sezary syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;21:757762.
  • 263
    Zackheim HS, Kashani-Sabet M, Hwang ST. Low-dose methotrexate to treat erythrodermic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Results in twenty-nine patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;34:626631.
  • 264
    Zackheim HS, Kashani-Sabet M, McMillan A. Low-dose methotrexate to treat mycosis fungoides: A retrospective study in 69 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;49:873878.
  • 265
    Vonderheid EC, Sajjadian A, Kadin ME. Methotrexate is effective therapy for lymphomatoid papulosis and other primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;34:470481.
  • 266
    Zinzani PL, Magagnoli M, Bendandi M, et al. Therapy with gemcitabine in pretreated peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients. Ann Oncol 1998;9:13511353.
  • 267
    Zinzani PL, Baliva G, Magagnoli M, et al. Gemcitabine treatment in pretreated cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Experience in 44 patients. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:26032606.
  • 268
    Marchi E, Alinari L, Tani M, et al. Gemcitabine as frontline treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Phase II study of 32 patients. Cancer 2005;104:24372441.
  • 269
    Duvic M, Talpur R, Wen S, et al. Phase II evaluation of gemcitabine monotherapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma 2006;7:5158.
  • 270
    Zinzani PL, Venturini F, Stefoni V, et al. Gemcitabine as single agent in pretreated T-cell lymphoma patients: Evaluation of the long-term outcome. Ann Oncol 2010;21:860863.
  • 271
    Wollina U, Graefe T, Karte K. Treatment of relapsing or recalcitrant cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;42:4046.
  • 272
    Wollina U, Dummer R, Brockmeyer NH, et al. Multicenter study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Cancer 2003;98:9931001.
  • 273
    Pulini S, Rupoli S, Goteri G, et al. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Haematologica 2007;92:686689.
  • 274
    Quereux G, Marques S, Nguyen JM, et al. Prospective multicenter study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment in patients with advanced or refractory mycosis fungoides or Sezary syndrome. Arch Dermatol 2008;144:727733.
  • 275
    Cummings FJ, Kim K, Neiman RS, et al. Phase II trial of pentostatin in refractory lymphomas and cutaneous T-cell disease. J Clin Oncol 1991;9:565571.
  • 276
    Dearden C, Matutes E, Catovsky D. Deoxycoformycin in the treatment of mature T-cell leukaemias. Br J Cancer 1991;64:903906.
  • 277
    Mercieca J, Matutes E, Dearden C, et al. The role of pentostatin in the treatment of T-cell malignancies: Analysis of response rate in 145 patients according to disease subtype. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:25882593.
  • 278
    Greiner D, Olsen EA, Petroni G. Pentostatin (2'-deoxycoformycin) in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997;36:950955.
  • 279
    Ho AD, Suciu S, Stryckmans P, et al. Pentostatin in T-cell malignancies-a phase II trial of the EORTC. Leukemia Cooperative Group. Ann Oncol 1999;10:14931498.
  • 280
    Kurzrock R, Pilat S, Duvic M. Pentostatin therapy of T-cell lymphomas with cutaneous manifestations. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:31173121.
  • 281
    Tsimberidou AM, Giles F, Duvic M, et al. Phase II study of pentostatin in advanced T-cell lymphoid malignancies: Update of an M.D. Anderson Cancer Center series. Cancer 2004;100:342349.
  • 282
    Jidar K, Ingen-Housz-Oro S, Beylot-Barry M, et al. Gemcitabine treatment in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: A multicentre study of 23 cases. Br J Dermatol 2009;161:660663.
  • 283
    O'Connor OA, Hamlin PA, Portlock C, et al. Pralatrexate, a novel class of antifol with high affinity for the reduced folate carrier-type 1, produces marked complete and durable remissions in a diversity of chemotherapy refractory cases of T-cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol 2007;139:425428.
  • 284
    Serova M, Bieche I, Sablin MP, et al. Single agent and combination studies of pralatrexate and molecular correlates of sensitivity. Br J Cancer 2011;104:272280.
  • 285
    Zain J, O'Connor O. Pralatrexate: Basic understanding and clinical development. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2010;11:17051714.
  • 286
    O'Connor OA, Pro B, Pinter-Brown L, et al. Pralatrexate in patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma: Results From the Pivotal PROPEL Study. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:11821189.
  • 287
    Foss F, Horwitz S, Pinter-Brown L, et al. Pralatrexate is an effective treatment for heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory transformed mycosis fungoides (tMF). Blood 2010;116 Abstract 1762.
  • 288
    Horwitz S, Kim YH, Foss F, et al. Identification of an active, well-tolerated dose of pralatrexate in patients with relapsed or refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL): Final results of a multicenter dose-finding study. Blood 2010;116:Abstract 2800.
  • 289
    Rueda A, Casanova M, Quero C, Medina-Perez A. Pralatrexate, a new hope for aggressive T-cell lymphomas? Clin Transl Oncol 2009;11:215220.
  • 290
    Zinzani PL, Musuraca G, Tani M, et al. Phase II trial of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in patients with relapsed or refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:42934297.
  • 291
    Wu PA, Kim YH, Lavori PW, et al. A meta-analysis of patients receiving allogeneic or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant in mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2009;15:982990.
  • 292
    Duarte RF, Schmitz N, Servitje O, Sureda A. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Bone Marrow Transplant 2008;41:597604.
  • 293
    Duarte RF, Canals C, Onida F, et al. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome: A retrospective analysis of the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:44924499.
  • 294
    Schlaak M, Theurich S, Pickenhain J, et al. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for advanced primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: A systematic review. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2013;85:2131.