To investigate the characteristics and clinical course of cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT) in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) we compared 48 patients with MPN and CVT (group MPN-CVT) to 87 with MPN and other venous thrombosis (group MPN-VT) and 178 with MPN and no thrombosis (group MPN-NoT) matched by sex, age at diagnosis of MPN (±5 years) and type of MPN. The study population was identified among 5,500 patients with MPN, from January 1982 to June 2013. Thrombophilia abnormalities were significantly more prevalent in the MPN-CVT and MPN-VT than in MPN-NoT group (P = 0.015), as well as the JAK2 V617F mutation in patients with essential thrombocythemia (P = 0.059). Compared to MPN-VT, MPN-CVT patients had a higher rate of recurrent thrombosis (42% vs. 25%, P = 0.049) despite a shorter median follow-up period (6.1 vs. 10.3 years, P = 0.019), a higher long-term antithrombotic (94% vs. 84%, P = 0.099) and a similar cytoreductive treatment (79% vs. 70%, P = 0.311). The incidence of recurrent thrombosis was double in MPN-CVT than in MPN-VT group (8.8% and 4.2% patient-years, P = 0.022), and CVT and unprovoked event were the only predictive variables in a multivariate model including also sex, blood count, thrombophilia, cytoreductive, and antithrombotic treatment (HR 1.97, 95%CI 1.05–3.72 and 2.09, 1.09–4.00, respectively). Am. J. Hematol. 89:E200–E205, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.